The purpose of this study is to develop a statement and framework to find out how parent’s involvement is associated with child education development and consequently, improve the academic performance of K-12 (Parental Involvement In Child Education Development). The literature on student academic performance shows that academic performance of students is influenced by parent involvement factors(Booth & Dunn, 2013).
Therefore, it is important to identify and evaluate the factors which influence academic performance. In this study, researcher intended to use Epstein Literature as a theoretical foundation to investigate parental involvement and its its influence on student academic performance in middle school (Epstein, 2016).
This research is located within ‘interpretive paradigm’ and researcher aim to understand the phenomenon and interpret the meaning for parental involvement in child education development. To effectively interpret the situation, it is important that researcher interacts with experience, knowledge, and situation and try to make sense of people perceptions and experiences (Marshall & Rossman, 2014).
The qualitative methodology will be used to answer the research questions because it allows the researcher to generate information on perception of participants and i.e. understand social behavior from an insider perspective. The use of semi-structured interview had advantage of reasonable advantage because it will offer understanding on participants opinions and reasons which would not possible through questionnaire (Creswell & Poth, 2017).
The select research topic is “Parental involvement in child development from K-12 and their impact on the academic performance”.
Many researchers have explored the affect of parental involvement in student academic performance in the field of education (Berger, 1991; Henderson & Mapp, 2002; Davis-Kean, 2005; Bakker, Denessen, & Brus‐Laeven, 2007; Sivertsen, 2015). According to Epstein & Sheldon (2002), the parent’s involvement is the core of school improvement and thus, no improvement without interaction of child, parents, and teachers.
This interaction strengths partnership among stakeholders which improve child learning, improve schools and strength educational system. This research is influence from work of (Epstein, 1995; Epstein & Sheldon, 2002) which evaluates six important factors for the effectiveness of parental involvement in child education development.
The framework encloses six factors which are communicating, parenting, learning at home, volunteering, collaborating with the community and decision-making. Epstein (2009) stated that it is important for each school to select the factors which it believes is important and likely to assist the school in reaching its goal for the educational development of students.
The partnership aims to develop a positive climate of the alliance between school and home and the key focus of six factors is to promote academic achievement as well as contribute to positive outcomes for all stakeholders (Nathans & Revelle, 2013).
Fine (2014) stated that in the US, since 1970’s parental involvement activities emerged as compensation program. The parent’s involvement programs were aimed at low-income first-graders and kindergarten students to sustain compulsory education program. The results of such programs manifested positive outcomes in the development of skills for the parent to help their children for educational progress.
In Europe, the goal of parent involvement program is designed to encourage low-income parents to prepare their child for successful schooling and overcoming factors which prevent education for children (Bakker, Denessen, & Brus‐Laeven, 2007).
Therefore, parental involvement programs are used as an intervention to support lower school achiever. The aim of this literature is to evaluate the literature on parental involvement and its impact on child education development.
The literature on student education development/performance shows that academic performance of students is influenced by parent involvement factors. Therefore, it is important to identify and evaluate the problems which result in poor performance. There are different factors which result in poor student performance as indicated by (Epstein, 1995; Epstein 2002; Sanders and Sheldon, 2009; Sheldon, 2009).
Nevertheless, these studies have not explored the in-depth role of parents involvement and, in particular, how parental involvement in middle schools is limited. Epstein (1995; 2002) framework is useful to study parental involvement and its effect on academic performance. Therefore, researcher intended to use Epstein Literature as theoretical foundation to investigate parental involvement in child education development in middle school.
The literature shows that there are positive effects of parental involvement on students academic performance (Epstein, 1995; Epstein & Sheldon, 2002); Sanders and Sheldon, 2009). It is expected that the parental involvement provides good and conducive climate for the intellectual, social and social development of the child. Moreover, parental involvement in child development is the source of security, love, guidance, and care which consequently, contributes towards the good academic performance of a child.
Carter (2002) stated that parental involvement is powerful influence factor which has both positive and negative affect in development of basic characteristic of child which is fundamental for school learning.
In today era, the technology and globalization have changed the social systems and structures. In modern families, parents have less time for the child because of long working hours, traveling and complex. social system. As parents are busy, i.e. they have less time for child and find it hard to follow the child education progress. The similar situation prevails for guardians and lack of monitoring and communication of child progress has become norm now-days (Alvarez, 2013).
This leads to poor academic performance and child are less motivated and feel cut-off from their parents. The over-reliance of parents on teachers results in lack of self-motivation. Therefore, the problem prevails because of disconnect between child and parent which results in poor academic performance (Castro, et al., 2015).
Hornby & Lafaele (2011) stated that the lack of parent involvement is a problem as parents lack communication and involvement with child education activities. Thus, it is questionable that whether parents really have a positive attitude toward child education. The range of small issues such as parent missing meeting which means they miss the opportunity to interact with child and teacher and understand needs and progress of their child.The missed opportunity means parents are unable to develop an understanding of mental and educational progress of child.
The purpose of the study is to develop a statement and framework to find out how parent involvement is associated with child education development and consequently, improve the academic performance of K-12.The proposed solution for such problem is involvement of parents in their programs such as parents days and meeting, volunteer programs and individual contact with parents. There is strong need to address the gap between parents and child education activities and get parents involve in child education development.
Parental involvement has a vital role in education development of preschool children and finding of this study will help in parental involvement in the educational development of middle school children. Moreover, the finding could also be useful in managing child educational development and identify the factors and types of parental involvement such as communicating, parenting, decision-making, learning at home, volunteering and collaborating impact child development (Hill & Tyson, 2009).
The study is expected to contribute towards the educational development of the child and future researchers can use this research use this knowledge on parental involvement on educational development. The finding of this study is expected to provide foundation for parents and teacher in developing programs to upgrade knowledge, skills, competencies as well as positive attitude and environment in education development.
The three proposed research questions for this study are
There are three key limitations attached to this study which are time and size, access to participants and sample size. The proposed study will take place over the period of next six weeks and due to a shortage of time, the longitudinal perspective may not observe. Due to lack of time, the amount of data may be limited and obstacle in finding a trend and meaningful correlations. The sample size is kept low because of time and resources as well as access problem and thus, may not an accurate representation of population distribution.
The privacy of participants (child and parent) restrict the researcher to gather data which does not affect personal information. The small sample size and lack of participation can skewed data because questions that are left unanswered and inaccurate answers. In addition, research will not be able to control socioeconomic status and environmental factors which could affect the educational development of middle school children.
This chapter of study presents the literature on parent involvement in child education development. The critical review of literature is categorized into three key areas which are role of parents in supporting child education development, parent’s attitudes towards education influences child’s learning behaviors and effectiveness of interaction between child, parent and teacher and its deliver value for all stakeholders.
Parent involvement involves interaction between child, parent, and teacher and it is considered as a recipe for success. Studies have shown that parent involvement allows the underperforming children to achieve success. The idea of parent involvement is encouraged by policy makers, teachers, parents and researchers (Clark, 2007; Duch, 2005).
For example, early child development program such as ‘Head start’ encourage parent involvement by inviting parents to participate in school activities and facilitate communication among all stakeholders. The aim of this literature is to evaluate the literature on parental involvement and its impact on child education development (Anderson & Minke, 2007).
The preliminary literature confirms the six important aspects of parental involvement. The first is the significance of parental involvement and literature show that parent involvement directly influences children development (Jeynes 2015). The second is various forms of parental involvement and its shows various activities at home and school affect child development (Shah2011). The third overview conducted was the identification of barrier of effective parent involvement (Vogels, 2012).
The fourth aspect is parental attitudes toward involvement and literature shows parent have both positive and negative attitude toward involvement (Parhar, 2006). The fifth includes analysis of teacher attitude towards parental involvement and it shows some teachers have positive and others have the negative attitude (Zoppi, 2006). The sixth aspect evaluated is identification of factors which content to promote involvement (Mansfield, 2009).
This research is influence from work of (Epstein, 1995; Epstein & Sheldon, 2002) which evaluates six important factors for the effectiveness of parental involvement in child education development. The framework encloses six factors which are communicating, parenting, learning at home, volunteering, collaborating with the community and decision-making.
Accoridng to El Nokali, Bachman, & Votruba‐Drzal (2016), communication refers to the design of the program and how this program can be executed in an effective way. The framework emphasis on the need of two-way communication that is home to school and school and home and monitor their children progress. Volunteering represents how parents need to organize and provide support to the child in educational development. The volunteering aspect believes that parents are professional, businessmen and talented in different aspect and thus, it is important to organize and help teacher and student in various aspects.
The outcome of volunteering is that it reduces teacher burdens and there is lower of the need of monitoring at school. Learning at home provides support, ideas, and information to families and parents about how to help student at home with homework, planning, and decision (Epstein J. L., 2016).
In terms of parenting, the framework emphasizes that families with parenting and child rearing skills must understand child development and set a home condition which supports child educational development. School and teachers can help families to understand as well as carrying out parenting responsibilities. Collaborating with stakeholders involves identifying and integration of teacher, parent, and child to support and strengthen students and schools. The collaboration delivers positive effect for parents, students, school climate and teaching practices. Each factor of framework involves different practices for partnership as well as poses range of challenges for all stakeholders (El Nokali, Bachman, & Votruba‐Drzal, 2010).
According to Nathans & Revelle (2013), ‘Epstein Model’ has practical applicability in terms of how the parent should play their role in guiding student for educational development. For instance, with communication, it is apparent that school with strong function of communication strengthen the relationship between parents and teacher and they develop consensus and consolidate on factors which may impede student educational development. The early interventions set by parents such as additional study resources and support for student help to achieve educational development.
The report provided by school highlight child progress and school fails to provide comprehensive report to parents fail to communicate performance and thus, parent to determine what actions and measures are required to support the educational development of their child educational development (Bower, 2015).
According to Sivertsen (2015), two-third of teachers stated that parental involvement has improved education results and increase the performance of the school. The involvement increases the grade of a student who receives support and motivated for educational activities when parents are involved. The engagement of parents and families help to improve student performance and achievement, increase confidence and reduce absenteeism (Garcia & Thornton, 2014).
Consequently, a role of the parent is considered as the important cornerstone for educational development and helps the student in academic success. The role of parents in child educational development delivers considerable difference in both academic success and quality of education (Georgiou & Tourva, 2007).
Silverten (2015) argued that parental involvement with child educational activities ensure the child that parents care for their schooling and education and children appreciate the importance of education as well as develop a sense of purpose and understand the goals need to achieve. In modern families, the social structure and system has become complex and thus, engaging student through different activities and programs is important in creating the welcoming business environment.
Today, school value parents day so that parents visit their child school and this enables the school to communicate performance of children. For example, parental involvement through small activities at home such as purchase of classroom supplies and packing their lunch ensure the student that parent concern for their education and students feel motived (Alvarez, 2013).
According to McKenna & Millen (2013), parents who involve with the child constantly have recorded high scores and grades, improved behavior and better social skills. The parent support at home and activities which motivate the student is important in terms of expectation and understanding of student needs and requirements. The parent involvement only at school often disconnected from the student home life realities.
Moreover, Duch (2005) elaborated that teachers usually miss the opportunities and unable to understand the needs of students, when there is a misconception on parental involvement and relationship which results in failure of nuances of different economic, cultural and geographical circumstances.
The research by (Smith, Wohlstetter, Kuzin, & De Pedro, 2011) shows that middle-class families are disproportionately involved in child educational development. Mapp (2003) showed that charter school works best for parental engagement because there have fewer barriers to involvement in low-income and minority parents. The survey conducted at Patrick O’Hearn Elementary School, in Boston, highlighted that 90% of parent participated in school-based based activities, irrespective of low socioeconomic setting. The parental involvement was high and survey showed that parents want their child to good at school and had the desire to motivate and help children to succeed (Mapp, 2003).
The study of El Nokali, Bachman, & Votruba‐Drzal (2010) reported that children motivated by parents have better social understanding and functioning and fewer behavior problems. The success-improvement were high when parents were involved in the learning process and consequently, relationship and interaction between teacher, child and parents increases child morally, increase motivation, develop a positive attitude and facilitate academic achievement as well as social and behavior adjustments (Sapungan & R, 2014).
The role of parents in both personal and academic performance of the child is further support by Sahagun (2015) and explained that there is the direct relationship between parental efforts and higher academic performance with a substantial magnitude of parents efforts. In order to devise, the measure of parent involvement, the Epstein factors are important and they are useful to elaborated the frequency and degree of interaction among all stakeholders (Smith, Wohlstetter, Kuzin, & De Pedro, 2011).
Research finding on parental involvement in child education development at both early childhood and adult education highlights that parent level of education is important to influence factor children school achievement level. (Anderson & Minke, 2007) showed that parents with the high level of education always succeed in providing language skills and critical thinking for their children which help in early success in schools. Therefore, the parent high level of education achieves high educational success than the parent of low education level.
Davis-Kean (2005) argued that households with a higher level of education stress on the importance of education because they believe education is important for their children to overcome poverty and ignorance. The parents with high level of education get more involved with their children and thus, motivate and spent time with their children for educational activities such as homework checking and activities leaned at school.
The evidence (Jensen & Seltzer, 2000; Georgiou & Tourva, 2007) suggest that parents with the high level of education monitor and interact with their children to review academic progress. The interaction between parent and children motivate their children by small activities such purchasing books and monitoring progress for stimulating experience. Therefore, level of parents education predicts quality and possibility of involvement in child education development.
In a similar context, Henderson & Mapp (2002) explained that education level of parents is related to the extent which parents are involved in children education. The level of education parent have influence parents behavior that how they structured their home environment as well as interaction with teacher and students.
Parent relationship and interaction is influenced by two important factors which are collaboration and communication. This interaction is based on the uniqueness of each family and where it is dad, mum or both, most parents want to involved and engaged in child educational development. The family composition and understanding help to create a better environment for students and families.
Green (1988) highlighted that positive relationship between parent, children, and teacher contributes to the success of child because the teacher is the second most important person in child life. Therefore, it evident from literature that good working relationship between parents and teacher is extremely important in child academic success (Sahagun, 2015).
Parents expect that teacher provide quality instructions to children and guide them in an effective manner to improve learning and consequently, help student in academic success. On the other hand, a teacher expects that parent support the learning and provide the positive environment at home for children to maximise the effectiveness of learning. The teacher expects student academic performance and positive behavior at school and out of school. When the expectation of parents and teacher have same expectation and well communicated, a synergy effect on their relationship positively influence student education development (Fine, 2014).
Communication is important to discuss the progress and manage the relationship. The literature shows that school and class activities, student performance, PTA meeting and volunteer in classroom involve all relevant stakeholders. When a child comes to school who is well groomed as well as completed homework, this shows that parents have been involved in helping the child in success and well-prepared for educational development.
This shows collaboration and way of communicating through providing a positive environment at home. When there is respectful and strong relationship between teacher and school, the positive environment both at school and home help child to develop motivation and achieve educational development (Smith, Wohlstetter, Kuzin, & De Pedro, 2011).
Research methodology encloses the plan which enables the researcher to answer the research questions. For the study, the selected research process is qualitative approach because it offers flexibility to develop an in-depth and clear understanding of social phenomena. A qualitative approach is useful as it allows to evaluate feeling, emotion, knowledge, and experience in social context and researcher cannot separate itself from phenomena (Taylor, Bogdan, & DeVault, 2015).
This study is descriptive in nature and mainly concerned with describing and explaining the event. Therefore, the qualitatitve approach is useful to evaluate the social phenomenon of parents involvements and its influence on child education development. Research design encloses the arrangement for data collection and analysis.The descriptive nature of this study is managed through ‘case study approach’ (Algozzine & Hancock, 2006).
Yin (2013) explaine that case study encloses a process of research which allows developing the deeper understanding of the problem as it allows to explore the complexities of real life situation decisions. The strength of case study is that it involves analyzing, applying, reasoning and drawing conclusions. Therefore, the case study is useful to examine the event in depth and thus, the case study would allow to develop understanding and analyze characteristics of parental involvements in their children academic performance.
The researcher will conduct interviews of participants to collect in-depth information and analyze the response in the context of Epstein framework and literature. This chapter presents detail on participants, methods, instruments, procedures, and analysis (Yin, 2013).
Research participants enclose a total number of the subject of interest which researcher intended to used for the research. The participants of this research are student, teachers and student parent from middle school. The participants are selected based on their experience and view of social process and thus, it would enable the researchers to closely examine the effect of parent involvement in child educational development (Flick, 2014).
The sample is known as a group of people which represent characteristic of the whole target population. The selection of participants is kept small because of time associated with a study. The selection of participants is based on purposive sampling in which selecting a number of individuals in such a way that they represent the large group of which they were selected. The purposive sampling is useful because researcher intended to pick teachers, students, and parents will be purposely selected to provide reliable information and enable the researcher to answer the research question (Creswell & Poth, 2017).
The selection of 15 families and 5 teachers is made because of the research time frame is ‘6 weeks’ and thus, a small sample will ensure timely completion of research. The participants are selected from public middle school’ and the total number of participants for this study is ’15 preschool children and parents’ and 5 teachers.
The selection of student will be made on the basis of their academic performance of last six months. The academic record and discussions with teacher will be carried to out to select 15 students based on academic performance.
Due to explororty nature of the study , the researcher intended to use qualitative data collection instrument. There are three types of interviews which are structured, semi-structured and unstructured and selection of interview type is based on a need of control and objectives of a researcher. In structured interviews, researcher set rigid questions and discussion is made with pre-define context. In an unstructured interview, the researcher starts with open-questions and there are open discussions on the subject. Finally, semi-structured interviews (face-to-face) involve defining pre-defined question to set the boundaries but the researcher can make adjustments during the process of research. The primary data collection will be managed through ‘semi-structured interviews’ because if offers researcher the control of discussion as well as researcher set the direction of research (Savin-Baden & Major, 2013).
Farrall, Hunter, Sharpe, & Calverley (2016) highlighted that in alignment with researcher process and design of this study, the researcher will conduct semi-structured interviews with research participants. Interviews are useful as it provides a researcher with detailed and rich qualitative data to explore and understand experience and knowledge of participants and make meaning of those experiences. The success of interviews is based on building trust, selecting participants, length and location of interviews, clarity of question and the overall process of conducting interviews.
For this research, first, teacher, then student and finally parents will be interviewed. For this research, ‘Interview Protocol Refinement (IPR)’ framework is used which is based on phases. These four phases are ensuring are ensuring interview questions are aligned with a research question, constructing inquiry based questions, receiving feedback and piloting the interview protocol. The first steps related to instruments are addressed here where are third and four step of IPR framework is associated with procedures (Castillo-Montoya, 2016).
The first step is ensuring interviews questions are aligned with research questions because it ensures necessity for the study and increases the utility of interview. The interviews questions for this study will be base into three section and questions will be supported by the literature review. The next step involved is constructing the inquiry based conversation questions and these questions provide detail understanding of the problem. The diagram below enclosed sample interview protocol criteria that will be used for this study.
Bryman (2015) explained that the interviews will be conducted during the weekdays and all participants will send the request in advance to schedule interview time. The participants will be provided with the overview of research and once the time is agreed, the researcher will conduct an interview at preferred time and place of participants. The teachers and children’s interviews will be managed at school and with permission of administration they will be conducted during school timing only.
The interview questionnaire will use four types of questions which are introductory questions, transition, key questions and closing questions. The introductory question will explore non-intrusive and eliciting information. The transition questions will link the introductory question to key questions. The questions would confirm basic facts about participants and develop the background for key questions. The key questions would determine the effectiveness of parent involvement and the transition would useful to develop the background on role and attitudes of participants.
Finally, close-end questions will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of Parental Involvement In Child Education Development and compare it with literature. The table below summarised the research question formulating process for interviews (Spradley, 2016).
The two key features of the good quality interview are that it flows naturally and rich in detail. Therefore, it is important that researcher listens and not just speak. The researcher will ask one question at a time as well as attempt to remain neutral as possible. To schedule the interview, a convenient time for participants will be identified and agreed.
The researcher will ensure flexible schedules at the convenient time of respondents and advance letter informing respondent about the study will send to maximise cooperation. The participants will be informed in advance about the purpose of study and importance of their contribution (Brinkmann, 2014). The steps used for conducting will be follow
During the rapport building, the first stage will be building rapport with the interviewee. This would enable easier and greater communication with teacher, parents, and students. It is important that respondent feels comfortable before the starting the interview. The next stage will be introduction and researcher will identify himself by explaining the basic detail such as his name and purpose of the interview.
Once initial rapport is developed and introduction is done, then the stage will involve asking the interview questions. In probing the goal is to encourage the respondent to answer freely, completely and relevantly. During the process, the recording will be done with the permission of interviewee and afterward, the recording will be transcribed.
The data-recording procedure will be efficiently structured so that it does not interfere with the process of interview. The interviews will be audio recorded and informed consent of participants will be asked. There will no personal information recorded or disclosed during the process of research.
The final stage will be closing and interviewer thank the respondent and assure interview worth of answers and confidentiality of respondents. The audio recording will be transcribed by the researcher and ‘NVivo 11’ will be used to analyse trend and pattern from data (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015).
The data analysis approach will be based on five steps which transcribing the interview, preliminary exploratory analysis, making connections with the research questions, inter-rater reliability and interpret findings. The diagram below encloses the data analysis process that will new for data analysis.
During the process of interview transcribing, the creation of the written copy of the recorded interview by playing the recording and typing each word. In case of non-verbal communication such as intonations and gestures, the researcher can follow transcription conventions. During data transcribing ‘Verbatim’ approach will be taken. One transcribing process is complete then next step is to conduct the pleminary exploratory analysis.
During the analysis, the identification of patterns and coding of data will be done. The coding will be used to identify themes and commonalities in the data will be examined. Once coding and commonalities are identified, then next important stage is making a connection with research questions (Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2013).
The identification of themes linked data to research question and new code given to emerging data. For example, what are social factors which influence parental involvement in child education development? It is important that common theme emerges in response to specific topics. The next step is inter-rater reliability analysis will be used. The final stage is an interpretation of findings which includes finalization of data coded and dividing themes to produced new insights.
The data consequently uploaded into NVivo 11which would allow categorizing the themes. The examination of data can conduct through performing thematic analysis and interpret the theme in way that explains the influences, factors, and effectiveness of parental involvement in child educational development in middle school (Bazeley & Jackson, 2013).
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