The purpose of research is to evaluate the training needs of employee of Ritz carton in Sanya (China) and recommend how training can increase efficiency and effectiveness of hotel employees. The goal is to evalute the impact of employee training on the employee performance
In today’s competitive business environment, employees are the human capital of an organisation. The knowledge and skills of employees help the organisation to achieve its goals. Therefore, it is imperative for an organisation to develop and equip these assets with knowledge, skills and abilities to tackle business challenges and contribute towards the success of the organisation (Ulrich, 2015).
Ford (2016) discussed training is an important source to develop employee knowledge and skills to perform the job effectively. Training contributes towards growth and enhancement of the abilities and skills based on learning which maximises the efficiency and effectiveness of these assets. The need for skilled and competent staff is vital in the emerging market, especially for the service sector.
The aims of the research are to evaluate the training needs and procedures deployed by Ritz carton in Sanya and offer recommendation and changes to employee training programme in the hotel to improve their employee performance.
Organisation started operation in the china after the economic transformation in the country. To successfully manage their operation and achieve objectives, the need for skills and the competent employee is important. However, different education system and culture presented human capital challenges for the organisation in china. The increased competition due to the political, cultural and economic environment has prompted the need for an organisation to train their employees and improve the performance of the employee (Cheng and Waldenberger, 2015).
Nda and Fard (2013) explained that the changing customer needs, the growth of knowledge and technological advancements has tremendous change the market environment for organisations. Therefore, it is imperative that organisations enhance the performance of employees through developing and implementing training programmes which meet the need of its employees.
The alignment of the organisation gaols and employees are a crucial resource for superior performance of an employee. Employees are the intellectual and human capital of an organisation which is a source of competitive advantage and training is a vital source to develop competencies for increases performance. The political, economic, cultural and technological challenges along with education differences in China have encouraged the need of this study.
Therefore, employee with relevant expertise is requirement of the organisations because ineffectiveness of training result in wastage of organisation resources as well as productivity of is reduced because lack of attitude, skills and capabilities to achieve the goals of the organisation (Zhang, Farh and Wang, 2015).
Training is a systematic and critical process to improve the performance of the employees in an organisation. Ritz Carton in Sanya is one of the premium hotels which strive to recognise and earn respect for quality service to the customers. The employees of the hotel value asset to deliver quality service and achieve the goals of the organisation. The short of skilled employees and lack of knowledge to perform a particular job is major obstruct for the company in the market (Mayes et al., 2016).
Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the training needs and procedures deployed by Ritz carton in Sanya and determine the effectiveness of the training programme. This study begins with realisation and understanding of the impact of the training on the performance of the employee. The training programme alignment with skills of the employees and how satisfied employees are training is analysed (Gross, Gao and Huang, 2015).
The aim of the study is to offer recommendations and changes to employee training programme in the hotel to improve their employee performance.
The study is restricted to the relationship of training and skills of the employee. However, this study does not consider the impact of other factors such as qualification and experience. Moreover, the impact of factors such as social and economic variables on the performance of the employees is not examined. The study is only focused on the effect of training provided by the company and how its impact on the performance of the employee.
Moreover, the study is only focused on the Ritz carton rather than examining the training effectiveness in the hotel industry. Thus, study will examine the linkage between the relationships between the employee performance training in the Ritz context (Vosniadou, 2013).
According to Houger (2015), training is an important activity to gain specific knowledge and competencies to perform a specific job. In order to develop knowledge and skills, an effective training programme is important. Therefore, this study contributes towards the improvement of the employee performance through training. The understanding of the training needs of the Ritz carton employees would allow the hotel to develop training programmes which increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the employee and contributes towards the better performance of the employees.
Ritz will able to achieve a better return on investment based on training provided by the hotel. The achievement of the objectives of the training programme through design and implementation which is tailored towards the employees training needs to enhance productivity and performance of employee (Qiu et al., 2016).
The changing business environment and market uncertainty have presented dynamic and complex business challenges for the organisations. Organisation invests in the training programs to improve skills and knowledge of their employees to tackle the uncertain business environment and make timely decisions. Training and skills development of an employee enhance the staff motivation and satisfaction (Dhar, 2015).
Training is a systematic process to bridge the gap between the existing performance level of the employee and desire standard to achieve the objective of the organisation. Organisation training programs objective is to improve the performance of the employees. Training method various which could include on-job-training and off-job training and active participation of the employee in training program according to training needs of employee improve performance and productivity of the employee (Ji et al., 2015)
Roberts (2014) analysed that the benefit of the training program is tow-folded as it not only allows improving the performance of the employee but also helping the organisation to achieve goal congruence. Training is a planned intervention to improve the performance of the employee as well as sharpen the decision-making skills to respond to changing business environment in a timely manner. According to Roger (2015), training is useful to reduce the frustration of the employee associated with the particular job and will help the employee to overcome the underperformance.
The gap between the existing skill and desire skills for the job result in job satisfaction for the employee and training is an effective tool to bridge the gap. According to Kutcher and Snyder (2013), trained employees are more effective to meet the needs and expectation of the customers and effective training program deliver greater job satisfaction as well as the superior performance of the employee. Training is a planned process to revamp the skills and knowledge of the employees which consequently affect the performance of the employee.
Quartey (2015) evaluated that employee training helps the employees to become more efficient and productive and organisation resulting increase the quality of its service through skills and knowledge of the employee. The benefits associated with effective training program are increased motivation, improve morale and job satisfaction, increase capacity and productivity, financial gains, adapt to technology and understanding of organisation goals as well as reduce the employee turnover (Nda and Fard, 2016).
According to Ulrich (2013) the reason behind the employee training is learning the new skills and improves performance. The first reason behind the training is the development of the human capital. Organisations are concerned with profitability and meeting target rather than skills development of the employee. The employees are only assets which allow the organisation to meet the target, maintain profitability as well as ensure the long-term development of an organisation.
Salas et al (2012) examined that training offer optimal solution for employees’ skills development along with loyalty, dedication and commitment. The second reason training is useful to boost the morale of the employee. Once employee upgrades their exciting or develops new skills then employee performance is improved which deliver economic benefit for both organisation and employee. The third reason is training allows the employees to adapt to changing business environment which enables the employee to respond to social, economic and political changes as well as meet the customer demand in timely and efficient manner.
Cunningham and Hillier (2013) evaluated that the performance analysis allows identifying the skills shortage through focusing on the deficiencies and problems which highlight the opportunities for improvement. Training is a systemic process which highlights how people should perform and consequently design training programs which meet the skills need of the employee.
Therefore, it is important to identify which employees should be given training and what are the training needs of the employee. The two common type of training provided by the organisation is ‘On-the-job training and off-the-job training. The on-the-job training involves completing a difficult and challenging assignment as well as job rotation. The off-the-job training includes workshops, attending certification or course as well as participation in different education and skills development programs (Ford, 2014).
Hawthorne (1967) explained that satisfied employees usually have better productivity and performance at workplace and dissatisfied employees are less likely to deliver good performance. Employees who are happier and satisfied are easy to motivate, achieve the target and deliver better performance. According to resource based view (RBV) employee are knowledge and human capital are important source of competitive advantage for an organisation. Training develops knowledge of employee which develops knowledge asset and human asset of the organisation (Shields et al., 2015).
Training is important determined of the knowledge and skills development enabling the employee to deliver efficiency and well-trained workforce strategically enables the organisation to achieve its objectives based on the better performance of employee (Houldsworth and Jirasinghe, 2016).
The performance of an employee is based on the planning, monitoring, developing, implementation and rewarding. The planning defines the ability of the employee to set goals which are SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time bound). Monitoring involves evaluating the performance of the employee and providing the feedback to progress towards the objectives.
The development stage highlights the skills gap to overcome the performance issues. The implementation involves the rating of the employees through making comparison of the performance and rewarding stage involves giving monetary and non-monetary benefits to the employees (Radzi et al., 2016).
According to Purcell et al (2013), there is a positive relationship between the employee skills and knowledge and performance of the organisation. Training is the most effective way to identifying the skills shortages of the employees and i.e. building competencies for better performance of the employee. There are a number of studies which have proved the positive relationship between the performance of the employee and training such as Hong et al (2012) has calculated the value of r=0.61 which represented that 60% of the changes and improvement in an employee can be achieved through training.
The study of Gross, Gao and Huang (2013) has calculated the r=0.33 which represents that organisation can make better gains through improving the performance of the employee. Moreover, Ji et al (2012) has elaborated that training increases the performance of the organisation based on the enhance productivity and efficiency of the employee. Therefore, implementing a training program which manages and tackle the performance issues and bridges the gap between the actual and desired performance is useful to increase the performance of the employee (Posthuma et al., 2015).
The competencies and skills of the employees are changed through an effective training program which increases the performance of the employee to effective perform the current job as well as provide skills and knowledge which is critical to the future job and sustaining performance of the organisation (Mowday, Porter and Steers, 2015).
According to Shields et al (2015) there is the positive relationship between the employee performance and training but it is the responsibility of the manager to identify factors which reduce the effectiveness of the training program and i.e. take measures which to maximise the effect of a training program on manager. The training program in an organisation should be designed in such manner that it increase the job satisfaction and increase employee commitment towards the organisation.
Effective training programs improve the initiative ability of the employee and enable the employees to meet the technological and economic challenges. Therefore, training not allows the employees to adapt and respond to changing business environment but allow improve employee performance ensure that goals of the organisation are achieved (Mowday, Porter and Steers, 2015).
According to Kleiman (2003) training programs which are aligned goals and mission of the organisation and collective supported by the employer and employee offers substantial’s return for both employee and employer such as improved performance, loyalty, profitability motivation and job satisfaction. There are number factors which reduce the effectiveness of training through preventing the transfer of knowledge. The problem which contributes towards the lack of training effectiveness is that when employees believe that he will not achieve any skills or reward associated with training problem and does not add value to his job performance or skill portfolio.
The organisation factors which hinder the effectiveness of the training program include funding provision to conduct training programs and availability of opportunities for the employee career development. (Wiener, Kanki and Helmreich, 2010)
Creswell (2013) stated that the design of the research refers to the arrangement and condition towards the collection and evaluation of the data. The achievement of the objective of the research is based on the design of the research. The objective of this is to evaluate the impact of training on the employee performance. There are three approaches research are descriptive, exploratory and explanatory research. Explanatory research allows understanding the effect and causes through develop meaning for the scenario. It is useful to answer the question based on the understanding and investigate the problem in deeper perspective.
Maxwell (2015) explained that descriptive research is useful to elaborate and clarify the problem. Exploratory research is useful to initial perspective and develops a hypothesis for the scenario. It enables the researcher to develop the background of the problem and provide the foundation for investigation.
For this study, descriptive research is useful to explore and explain the employee training and impact on the performance of the employee in Ritz carton. Descriptive research is useful to describe the research population based on a characteristic in the context the phenomena being studied. Therefore, descriptive research would allow understanding the training programs in Ritz carton and their impact on employee performance (Teddlie and Tashakkori, 2016).
According to Yin (2013), case study is useful research strategy because of the flexible design which enables the researcher to understand the holistic characteristic of the real life event. The case study allows examining the contemporary social phenomenon in real life context to examine the problem based on the multiple pieces of evidence. The case study research is useful to conduct the research based on the survey and observations. The role of case study research is to provide the descriptive account of social scenario. Moreover, descriptive research would allow answering the problem-based number of variables and question such as what and how scenario. (Mackenzie, 2010)
To evaluate the impact of the employee training on the employee performance based on the case study approach would allow understanding the scenario in a wider context and consequently made a recommendation for an effective training program which contributes towards the performance of the employee. In addition, a descriptive case study will be useful to overcome inconsistencies and examine the results in the light of theory. A descriptive case study would allow identifying and evaluating the training program and its impact on employees (Maykut and Morehouse, 2016).
Qualitative research is useful to develop an understanding of the social problem through giving meaning to the social scenario. It focuses on the importance of the relationship between the researcher and topic to develop social meaning for the phenomena. Qualitative research is useful to make observation through conducting a research on the description, things and metaphors. (Miles, Huberman and Saldana, 2015)
Vogt, Gardner and Haeffele (2015) added that It is flexible technique and provides much more detail about the scenario which gives a better understanding to the researcher about a social scenario in less time. In qualitative research primary data is collected through interviews with the respondent and i.e. researcher cannot separate itself from the research. Qualitative research develops meaning and understanding as well as brings clarity to the situation through information analysis and result interpretation.
Bryman and Bell (2012) highlighted that quantitative research is useful to identify the reason and problems based on the numeric data and rigid structure. Quantitative research is useful to examine the positivist variables to understand the causes and effect among the variables. The primary is collected through survey and experiments.
It is useful to analyse large study population in short time and subjective natures allows to develop better insight of problem through analysing human behaviour and attitude based on the hypothesis confirmation. The key difference between the qualitative and quantitative research is methodological order and design of the research (Sapsford and Jupp, 2015).
For this study, quantitative research will be used to evaluate the impact of the training programs of the company and there effect on the performance of Ritz employees. The quantitative approach will be useful to analyse and evaluate the training program and employee performance. The use of the questionnaire to evaluate the training programs will help to examine the implicit phenomena. (Denzin and Lincoln, 2016)
Data collection is an important to phase of research which affect the validity and reliability of research. There are two types of data which are primary and secondary data. Secondary data is a data which is collected for other purpose and already exist. Moreover, primary data is known as data collection for a specific problem. In this research primary, data will be collected using the questionnaire. The advantage of the primary data is that it is collected for a specific problem and i.e. consistent to draw relevant results (Marsden and Wright, 2014).
According to Sreejesh, Mohapatra and Anusree (2015), survey is useful to collected primary data directly from the sample population. The survey usually involves questionnaire which enlists a number of questions for the respondents to answer based on their experience and perception. The advantage of the survey is that it is low and save time when collection data from the large population sample. To ensure the validity and reliability of the data, it is important that selected population is free to bias as well as represent sample of the population. (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009)
Stratified sampling will be used to specific employees from each subgroup of the population to ensure that study population represent a large population. Stratified sampling would allow dividing the entire pollution into subgroups based on the characteristic and proportionality. The study population is the employees of the Ritz Carton in Sanya. The employees will be selected from all department of the hotel such as customer service, accounts, administration, procurement, HR and sales and marketing department.
The sample size will be kept at 50 employees. The questionnaire will be managed through online platform ‘Qualtrics’. There will be no personal information of the respondent will be collected and their consent will be asked for participation in the survey. The privacy and confidentiality of the employees will be a top priority (Sue and Ritter, 2016)
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