Secularism, Concentration of Political Power, and Gender Relations  


The selected countries for this study are Mexico from Latin America, Libya from North Africa, German from the Europe and India from Asia.

Mexico has diverse culture and has second highest Spanish speaking population in the region after Brazil. Country’s three-quarter of the population living in the urban city and there are 50 different languages are spoken in the Mexico. Half of the country population is below the age of 20 and Religion is most important because 90% of population is ‘Roman Catholic’ (All about Mexico, 2015).

Libya is a mostly desert country with large oil reserve and country is based on the Mediterranean Sea. The population of the country, more than 6 million and 97% of the country population is based on the Muslims. The main language spoken in the country is Arabic and the country population is based on the Arab. The Religion has strong dominance and prominent future in the country is a month of Ramadan in which strict religious practices are performed (CIA, 2015).

Germany is a most populous country in the Europe with strong industrialization and technological achievements. Country population is aging and based immigrants have high percent of 7.2%. Germany is located in the heart of the Europe and country have border attached to Belgium, France, Austria, Luxemburg, Poland and Czech Republic. The diverse culture based on the immigrants and unification of west Germany and East Germany. There are 7.3 million immigrants living in the country and it is estimated that 30% of the country population will over the 60 in 2030. The religion diversity of the country is 34% of the population is Roman Catholic, 34 % Protestants and 28% other affiliated groups (Library of Congress, 2008).

At last, not least, India is a second largest country in the world in terms of population and marked as the largest democracy in the world. The country is classified as fastest growing economy in the world with strong religious influence in every domain of life. They are 22 languages are spoken in the country and Hindu religion made 78% of the population as well as Muslim population is 15% in the country (UNdata, 2015).

Importance of Religion (Secularism)

According to Lasswell and Kaplan (2013), the religion is review through studying two variables which are ‘highest percentage portion of the population for specific religion’ and ‘tolerances for religious practices’.

Religion is the strongest element in the Mexican. The population of the country is based on the 90% Roman Catholic and its shows that the country has a strong religious impact. Despite the fact, there is no official religion and state present itself as a secular country. The country states that priests are above the all political parties and they are not allowed to participate in politics. People have strong believed in relation and there is minimum tolerance in terms of religion (Dawson, 2014).

Libya has strong religious because data shows that 97% of the country population is Muslim. Country strictly followed the religious practices and it is evident from the month of Ramadan. The religious tolerance is low in the country (Sawania, 2012).

Unser and Ziebertz (2015) stated that Germany is more secular country does not impose any religious restriction. Despite the fact, large population in the country is Christian but every religion has freedom of practice. There is high religious tolerance in the Germany society and the country is secular rather than religious.

India officially declares itself as a secular country. However, data and the religious composition shows that country have strong religion influence of Hinduism. The country has 78% population based on the Hindu and Muslim is a second largest community in India. Despite the fact, both Hindu and Muslim practice their religion with freedom but there is minim tolerance among each group (Sica, 2014).

Concentration of political power

According to Majumder and Basu (2015), the power political system is review through examining two variables which are ‘legislative power distribution’ and ‘parliamentary affairs of the country’.

The political system in Mexico is based on a presidential system with executive and judicial branches. Mexico is federation based on the integration of 31 states and political power system is based on president in the country who is elected through popularity vote and chamber of deputies have 500 members. The legislation power is in the hands of the senators and deputies. This represents the reasonable distribution of power and country has a mix of control where each state is the reason for local government as well as a centralized command (Schmitt, 2014).

Obeidi (2013) highlighted that Libya has been a long history of governance by ‘Col Muammar Gaddafi’ from 1969 to early 2011. The system was known as Jamahiriya with reprehensive of congress, president, and prime minister. However, the political system in the country has revamped since the removal of Gaddafi in 2011. The elections were held in the country in 2014 which produced two governments in the country. The group is Islamist and second group is secular militias. The single political power distribution is scattered as there is no clear authority.

Germany political system is more stable and powers are distributed throughout the system. The country is governed through federal legislative power and judiciary and other systems are independent in the country. The chancellor manages most the matters through the federal cabinet (Shively, 2016).

Banton (2014) discussed that India political power is based head of the government who is prime minister whereas the head of state is president. Country political system is based on the lower house having 530 members from the states of India and the upper house have 250 members representation state based on the proportion of state population. Country have a much stable political system with power distributed to state governments as well as a centralized control on the states.

Balance of power between men and women (Gender Relations)

According to Smith (2016), the two variables study to examine the balance of the social structure of society and women nomination in the political system.

The social structure of the Mexico shows that country has a high ratio of masculinity and people prefer to live families. The men are dominated force in the society and make most of the decision representing Mexican macho culture. However, there has shift after the election of 2013 where women have a high portion in the portion of the representation in the federal congress. There are 190 women out of total 500 members (Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2015).

The social structure in Libya is that people prefer to live in families and women power in the society is limited. The men are dominated force in the society and power distance in the society is much higher. However, recent elections of 2014 have changed the situation in the political structure of the country and for the first women had a chance to register for the vote. Despite the few changes country is highly conservative against women (Ahmida, 2014).

Parsons (2013) argued that the social structure in the Germany gives different picture compare to as more people prefer individualism. This has given women more freedom and power to express them and have equal representation in the society. In politics, the most powerful person, the Chancellor is ‘Angela Merkel’, which shows that country allows the women freedom.

Lastly, India has a strong family system but women have much representation in the society. The urbanization has resulted in number of independent women and women have high power in society. In the social system, women have much more power but in parliaments women are very low with 60 in lower house and just 28 in upper house (Majumder and Basu, 2014).

Discussion of Results

The religious similarities are that Germany has more secular system whereas all three other countries have strong religious. The data collected on India and Mexico does not reconcile the government statement and actual fact of the society. The statistics collected shows that religion tolerance is low in the countries which have a high religious impact. The conception of secular India and Mexico does not reconcile with data collected which shows a strict religious country.

People prefer to strict to the religion and the composition of the society (based on data) shows that there is a high percentage of a certain religion in countries. For example, India has high Hinduism influence and Mexico have a large population of Christian. Nevertheless, Libya has strong religion influence of strict Islamic practices (Fox and Sandler, 2014).

The next important factor was a political system in each of the selected countries. The collected data shows that all selected countries had different democratic structure. The Mexican and India more or less similar structure which include parliamentarians or deputies for the legislation, as well as judicial system, is independent in the country. The collected data have revealed that general conception about the political system of India is true as a country have a stable political system with power distributed among the institutions.

Furthermore, the data has showed that the political system in the Libya has changed recently compare the traditional concept of dictatorship, but the country needs a lot of effort for the effective political system (Lasswell and Kaplan, 2013).

The social power balance has shown that as expected German society are much more liberal and women have equal rights in the society. The surprising is that women have got representation in the Libya compare to traditional of man society. The data is much aligned with Mexican government statistics as it shows women are getting empowered in the society.

The tradition conception on India has wrong and it is completely different compared to other countries. In India, women have much independence and have a strong influence in business and society. Nevertheless, the representation in the parliament of India is very low (Walby, Armstrong and Strid, 2015).


The data analysis shows that countries have strong religious influence despite the claim made the Mexican and Indian government. There is large percentage of population attached to specific religion as well as the tolerance level in the society is low in terms of religious practices.

Germany is completely secular where as expected Libya is under the control lslamist and country have strict Islamic law. The political system in the Mexico and India has evolved over the years and power is distributed among the institutions to minimize the control of individualism.

Germany political system is different compare to others but have strong efficiency. Libya is evolving towards democracy but the current political situation is uncertain. The social power is strong in the Germany and unexpectedly and Indian women are much liberal in society.

Mexican is moving away from the macho culture and women empowerment is evident from large portion of representation in the society. Libya have enrolled women voter for the first time but it will time because women have social power in the society.


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