Leadership and Management Development in an international context

Keywords: Configuration grid and organisation performance, Planned vs. Emergent Dimensions of LMD, Approaches to leadership and management development, Academic and experiential liberalism, Experiential Vocationalism, Resource based Perspective — human capital Vs. Social capital, Culture, performance and leadership, Diversity and Organisation performance, Leadership and management assignment writing services


This essay examines the leadership and management differences and relevance to business, its purpose and value of the leadership and management as well as formal and informal approaches to leadership and management development (LMD) and impact of the LMD on the performance of the organisation

Bolman & Deal (2014) stated that Leadership and management are usually taken as interchangeable but they are two distinct things with different value and purpose. There are similarities between the two but the differences are significant leadership and management. Leadership involves influencing the activities of the group or team to achieve the specific goal.

In other words, leadership is concerned with making sense among the people to understand the purpose why they are together and commit to common goals (Stacey, 2012).

On the other hand, Algahtani (2014) discussed that management is a process which is used to achieve the goals of the organisation. Management is an act of managing and controlling the activities to achieve the goals of the organisation. Nevertheless, leadership and management skills are critical for the individual success as well as to achieve the goals of the organisation.

The importance leadership and development are significant in today’s rapidly changing business environment to manage change, deploy new technologies as well as management of the diverse workforce (Avolio and Yammarino, 2015).

Leadership and Management

Hechanova & Cementina-Olpoc (2014) discussed that the leadership and management are two distinct things because a person can be the leader without being manager and person can be a manager without leading. The important proportion is that leadership and management are mutually exclusive but the ample difference between the two is that leadership and management cannot occur in the same person. Therefore, some people are managers while other is leaders.

Leaders in an organisation set the direction and create a vision as well as make sure goal congruence between the people and organisation. Leaders motivate and empower people and achieve commitment to the goals. In contrast, manager set budgets, allocate resources, define rules and processes and focus on the providing solutions for consistent and effectiveness of the resources (Grossman, 2015).



Set vision and develop strategy

(Future and horizon)

Focus on the planning and budgeting

(bottom line)

Shared values and cultures. Empowerment and motivation among the employeeDirecting and controlling the boundaries of the organisation
Act as coach, facilitator as well as persuader. Focus on motivating and inspiring peopleAct as  boss and position based on the power
Personal qualities involves strategic perspective, innovator and open-mindedPersonal qualities include problem solving, organisational skills and conformity.
Role is to manage and implement the change in the organisation to ensure long-term survival of the companyResources allocation and stability for short-term outcomes.

Purpose and value of Leadership and Management

Daft (2014) discussed that leaders and manager have different personalities along with dissenting values. The leaders are focused on the adaption and innovation, value flexibility; evaluate the economic outcome and value people along as well as long-term perspective. Leaders set the direction for the team and develop motivation among the team member to work for the common goal. On the other hand, managers focus on the efficiency, stability along with risk-adverse attitude and focus on the short-term result and achievement of the targets

Storsletten & Jakobsen (2015) explained that manager’s emphasis on the need of the getting works done and ensures people perform effectively. Hence, leader focuses on doing the right things whereas management emphasis on the getting the things right. Leader influence relationship, purpose and implement relationships to achieve commitment to common goals of the organisation. Management encompasses authority relationship and focuses on the resource allocation, efficiency and effectiveness (Dubrin, 2015).

Organisational context -Leadership and management

The complex organisation structures and rapid changing business environment has made it difficult to manage and develop leadership and management capabilities as well as pipeline for the organisation. The private and public sector have diverse interest and needs. The public focus is on the resource efficiency and customer satisfaction whereas in private sector emphasis on the profitability (Dahlmann & Brammer, 2014).

Gold et al (2015) added that it is important to consider the factors which effect the managing and leading in the organisations. The diagram highlights the leading and managing of the organisation.

Configuration grid -The Service Economy: Standardisation or Customisation?

Thorpe et al (2014) discussed that the important dimension of the grid is the standardisation and customization which highlight the extent to which organisation product and services configured towards specifications of the organisation. The standardisation approach focuses on the economies of scale through standard product and service using the ‘One size fit all’ approach.

The customization viewpoint is emphasised on the specific requirement of the customers. The public-private dimension is important factor to understand the interest and satisfaction of the various stakeholders in the organisation (Mumford, et al., 2012).

Leadership and management development (LMD)

Gold, et al (2016) elaborated that there are various perspective on how manager and leader in an organisation because of the environment and situation of the organisation. LMD is defined as a process and planned approach which helps the manager to become more effective but there is no defined rule or approach for the LMD.

Hoch & Dulebohn (2015) concluded that a more comprehensive approach elaboration of LMD is that it is a process of learning for the leaders as well as managers based on the recognised and available opportunities. These opportunities are useful to change and develop the leader and managers which result in more predictable outcomes. The diagram below shows the planned vs. emergent dimensions of LMD.

Planned and Emergent Learning Management
Planned and Emergent Learning Management

For instance, a manager attends a course which has pre-defined objectives but develops new capabilities through learning which is not part of pre-defined objectives is known as the emergent approach based on the recognition. LMD opportunities are usually unplanned and deliberate. For that reason, the attempt is to develop and shift at least some of the experiences towards reviewed and assessed learning experiences as highlighted by in LMD dimensions diagram (Daft, 2014).

Avolio & Yammarino (2013) explained that there is sometimes overlap between the LMD as planned and emergent process. For examples, when managers attend formal training there will experience and stories shared by the people who emerge as informal learning and experiences for the managers.

According to Bolman & Deal (2014), LMD as a method of the action learning involves group learning in managers share their problems as well as develop consensus to take the action and manage the learning through periodic review. Nevertheless, it is difficult to specify the objectives in terms of what will be achieved but it allows predicting what can be achieved.

Dubrin (2015) debated that the planning and deliberation have a preference in LMD because it provides the structure and delivery of the learning benefit as well as the allocation of the resources. Therefore, LMD involves the both event which involves the skills acquisition and focuses on the management training based on the formal activity of acquiring knowledge and develop an understanding based on accreditation.

Henceforth, management learning is associated with training and education which result in the development of skills and knowledge of the management (Boje, et al., 2016).

Approaches to leadership and management development

There are some connections how LMD should approached as well as developing an understanding and purpose which involves wide range of activities for LMD. The framework proposed by Carmichael et al (2011) suggests that leadership and management development is based on number of approaches (Gold, et al., 2015).

Interventions — Academic and experiential liberalism

Sambrook & Willmott (2015) described that the first approach involves is known as ‘academic liberalism’ which involves the pursuit of the objectives knowledge and theories are applied in the rational manner. Manager takes on the scientific approach which involves applying the principles as well as ideas delivered by the expert. Managers uses the theories and knowledge to find their way forward and such knowledge and skills are developed through taking seminars and program such as MBA.

Hanna, et al (2015) added that the second approach involves ‘experiential liberalism’ which focused on the experiences as sources of learning rather emphasis on the theories. Therefore, this approach makes the LMD as reflective learning process in which makes the learning and skills development as a deliberate process.

Based on the LMD diagram above, manager can use experience from various sources based on the particular context. The ‘experiential liberalism’ is considered as more meaningful processes for the managers.

Interventions — Experiential Vocationalism and critical

Flude & Sieminski (2015) analysed that the third stage involves in LMD is ‘experiential Vocationalism’ in which manager in the organisation identify what is needed in terms skills and knowledge development acquired. The approach highlights that competent leader as defined by the ‘model of competences’ which emphasis on the behaviour need of the managers. The skill evaluation and profile of the leader and manager allows setting the objective and training needs of the managers.

The LMD diagram above is elaborated in the context of the organisation which highlights the connection between the skills requirement and organisation requirement.

Collings, et al (2014) mentioned that another important LMD dimension is experiential critical based on the empowerment of the managers. The emergent role of the manager faced by the managers based on the situation and environment which critically reflective and evaluate the assumption which results in preventing progress.

This approach is focused on the combination of the experiences and techniques which are based on the critical theory. Nevertheless, this result in tension and expectation during the fast-paced environment but globalisation has provided motivation to use this approach as LMD intervention (Dahlmann & Brammer, 2014).

Human capital Vs. Social capital

According to Gedajlovic, et al (2013), human capital includes the skills and knowledge possesses by the labour force in the organisation. In other word, the human capital is defined as the knowledge and skills of the employee is regarded as resource as well as asset of the organisation. As a result, the investment on the employee such as training and program and i.e. interventions increase the productivity and performance of the employee.

On the other hand, Nyberg et al (2014) stated that social capital has important context for the high performance and productivity of the organisation. Social capital involves the connection among the individual, social connections along with trustworthiness which result from them.

Moreover, Rego et al (2012) supported the argument that social capital result of the active connections of the people based on the trust and mutual understanding built on trust and mutual understanding of the employee shared believe and behaviour of the employees. The social and human network make it possible based on the cooperative action of the employee.

Resource based Perspective — Human and Social capital

Carmichael et al (2014) pointed out that the RBV has emphasis on the building the set of resources for an organisation which are unique and difficult to imitate and consequently result in competitive advantage. The RBV suggest that competitive advantage is not limited to factors such as economies of scale and technology but it is based on the factors which are valuable, rare and difficult to imitate. Thus, social and human capitals are importance asset for the organisation.

Nyberg et al (2014) emphasised that the human resource highlights the knowledge and skills of the employees whereas social capital facilitates the sharing of the information based on the network build in the organisation.

For that reason, human and social capital is intangible asset for the organisation. The ability of the organisation to acquire and retain talent as well as information dissemination is different which helps the organisation to achieve competitive advantage.

Value of social and human capital — LMD

Colbert et al (2014) elaborated that the development of leadership and management capacity requires both social and human capitals. The impact of the social capital has positive impact on the career success of the employee. The benefits offered by the social capital facilitate the placement, training, resource exchange as well as development of the relationship among the internal and external stakeholders.

Hechanova & Cementina-Olpoc (2016) explained that the level of trust, shared values and belief and knowledge sharing are the result of the coherence of the action. The two types of the social capital which contributes towards the leadership and management development are ‘social bonding’ which facilitates the employee to achieve the common gaols because social capital provides psychological and social support.

Accordingly, bridging social capital is useful to facilitate the information diffusion and linked it to resources which are external to the organisation (Nyberg, et al., 2014).

Dubrin (2015) clarified that the development of the leader includes the process which involves the expansion of the individual capabilities which facilitate in the direction setting and strategy, alignment and goal congruence as well as maintaining commitment in the group who share common work and goals.

It is important that individual become acquainted of their own goals and values based on the self-awareness which result in enhanced ability for continuous learning and thinking in strategic perspective. For that reason, LMD also encompasses and address the organisation’s capacity based on the collective task.

Hanna et al (2013) mentioned that LMD programs help the organisation to set target and goals for the employees, develop capabilities which help to achieve the future jobs and growth in the organisation.

LMD allows the manager to develop an effective leadership style, manage and lead a high performance team, achieve and sustain growth and spur the culture of innovation.

Social and Human capital and organisational performance

Johnson et al (2015) stated that social capital is important to increase the effectiveness of the organisation because it impact upon the operational outcomes which result in creativity, collaboration as well as innovation in an organisation. The relationships in an organisation matter and leaders are important to connect people with system and belief as well as create opportunities based on shared learning. The sustainability and success of the organisation is based on the leadership and management of the organisation.

Ellinger et al (2016) highlighted that the ability of the leader to effective allocation of resources and lead the team is important for the long-term success of the organisation. Leaders understand the value of the human and social capital to achieve the goals of the organisation.

Leadership and management contribution towards the long-term success of the organisation is based on the resource allocation and motivation of the employees. Consequently, the performance of the organisation is based on the effective leadership and management.

Colbert et al (2014) indicated that leadership facilitates the attainment of the follower desires which increase the performance and productivity of the employee and organisation. The impact of the leadership on the performance of the organisation is critical because research has shown that strong leader usually outperforms the weak leaders.

For example, transactional leadership is not as effective as transformational leadership which helped to increase the performance of the organisation. Transformational leadership is a significant success factor in terms of the performance of the organisation when compared with contingent reward (transactional leadership) (Harris, et al., 2016).

Relationship between Culture, performance and leadership

Wilderom et al (2015) described that leadership takes the strategic perspective for the organisation to ensure the long-term survival and growth of the organisation. The contribution made by the effective leadership is significant but it requires effective organisation culture which embeds and facilitates the LMD.

The organisational culture in national and international context is interrelated. For example, leadership style is fundamental to reflect the values as well as belief of the organisation which set the cultural traits in an organisation. Moreover, the culture impacts the direct and control of the organisation (Colbert, et al., 2014).

Leadership Style, Organizational Culture and Performance

Grossman (2016) studied that the culture effects the action of the leadership and management in an organisation. It is an on-going process based on the two-way interaction in which leader develops the culture of the organisation and culture affect the decision of the leadership.

The degree of alignment between the employee of the organisation, share valued and leadership effectiveness helps to align the value of the organisation and employee which helps to achieve the goal congruence (Storey, 2014).

Bolman & Deal (2014) added that the ability of the leader to change and influence the organisation culture to achieve the objectives of the organisation. The interconnection between the culture and leadership style is important because leader creates and impact on the culture of the organisation which result in strengthening the norm and value in the organisation.

Leaders affect the norms of the organisations according to their interest, response to the crisis as well as attract and retain talent in an organisation. The culture developed by the leadership helped to set direction and adopted by the followers in the organisation  (Sambrook & Willmott, 2013).

Thorpe et al (2012) highlighted that the success of the organisation depended on the leadership style as well as value and belief of the leadership which set direction and achieves goal of the organisation. The leader set the culture in the organisation to overcome the constraints and benefit from the opportunities.

The leadership style impacts upon the performance which helps to adapt to changes and challenges faced by the organisation. The human and social capital is critical to improving the performance of the organisation because these are viewed as important asset for the organisation (Storsletten & Jakobsen, 2015).

Diversity and Organisation performance

Robbins et al (2016) defined that diversity defines the concept that people should value and respected for the reason of business in the same manner as for the social and moral reasons.

Diversity is useful to understand that people from the diverse background can bring unique ideas and perception which increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. The diverse workforce in the organisation would have social diversity based on demographic, informational diversity (education and experience based) as well as value diversity which is based on the attitude and personality of the employees (Storey, 2014).

Muchiri & Ayoko (2013) indictaed that the value of Diversity in cross-cultural context is important as it allows the organisation is usually increasing the performance of the organisation.

The impact of diversity on the performance of the organisation usually results in effective ‘talent management’ through attracting a wider pool of candidates. It allows increasing the loyalty of the employees because employees from the various backgrounds are likely to get promotion and career development.


Leadership and management are critical for the long-terms success and growth of the company. Leaders create a vision for the team whereas management ensures the resource effectiveness.

Leadership and management development (LMD) is rigorous processes which are based on the situation and environment of the organisation. The skills and capabilities can be developed through various formal and informal interventions which allow developing knowledge and skills for long success and performance of the organisation.

LDM is an intangible asset for the organisations which could result in competitive advantage for the organisations. Manager knowledge and skills are intangible assets for an organisation which helps to increase the productivity and performance of the organisation.

The culture of an organisation is shaped and managed by the leaders which impact upon the performance of the organisation. The diversity in an organisation helps to attract and retain wider talent pool as well as improved employee retention.


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