The hotel industry in china has experienced tremendous growth along with revenues of the $44 billion and 2.5 million hotel rooms. However, analysts believe that market has reached its saturation point and therefore, it is important for the hotels to manage customers in an efficient manner through providing unique customer experience. (Bowerman, 2014) The hotel industry in china has improved over the years and hotel keeps focus on improving the service quality. Therefore, hotel processes management, facilities and amenities are important to develop and provide a positive experience to the guests. (Huang and Sun, 2014)
Moreover, researchers have shown that experience as the propelling force for the economy has made this quite clear. The economics of customer services and customer satisfaction are changing from meeting people’s material needs to meet the demand of psychological needs. (Melnyk, Cooper and Hartle, 2011)
Experience economy defines the narratives and made up of artefacts and ritual which further translate into meaning. Pine and Gilmore (1998) suggested that that people pay more attention to experience economy as a new pattern of the economy. It gradually replaces the status of goods and services in the economy and enhances people’s sense of participation. (Pine and Gilmore, 1998)
Thus further to promote the changes in the economic environment and the consumption environment. The customer involvement in shaping and creating experience and therefore, experience received by the customer from the company should be based personalised for the customer.
According to Gopinath & Siciliano (2013) the experiential services are meaningful and act as heart and soul of in the hotel industry. The construct and memory of the human mind are important to understanding the hotel industry through analysing believe, value and desire. (Johnston and Clark, 2008)
Kandampully & Suhartanto (2000) assessed that the hotel is one of the most important pillars of the tourism industry, which has become a global industry. In the face of increasingly fierce market competition, meanwhile customers have diverse and personalised needs and this has become an important element of experience becomes the real reason make customers return a hotel. The hotel industry is heavy dependent on the customer satisfaction and i.e. experience economy has an important implication on the hotel industry.
Boswijk et al (2007) indicated that the hotel can produce 25% to 85% of the profits if customer loyalty increased by 5%. And the pursued by the customer is not only tangible product services but involved in that and gain unique experience. Zomerdijk & Voss (2011) argued that Sensing is made from personal stream of experiences, interpreting is concerned with oneself to believe and institutions bridge the gap between the desire and actual experience.
The integration involves made the collective actions which result in the customer experiences. The research on experiential study shows that staff and service design has an impact on the customer which shapes the customer experience. (Gopinath and Siciliano, 2013)
Haemoon et al (2007) highlighted that Hotel depends on the service to make profits and i.e. it is important to retain customers through providing unforgettable memories during guests stay. Moreover, the hotel needs to make products more meaningful in order to give a wonderful experience for every customer. China hotel industry is competing increasingly fiercely. The competition between each other is no longer limited to the operation, management and cultural innovation. Hotel needs to integrate all resources in order to customers have a wonderful experience during consumption. (Andersson, 2007)
According to China Travel News (2014), “China currently has 1,265,654 hotel rooms and has experienced an increase in supply of 24.79% to 313,821 hotel rooms. An Experience-centric approach is useful customer value driver which helps to develop deliberate design choices which provide the framework to interact and engage the customers in meaningful and memorable way. (Bill Xu and Chan, 2010)
According to Wei & Huang (2013) the customer experiences are unique and have heterogeneous characteristics because each customer is unique with distinct personal desire. Likewise, experiential service plays an important role to induce the emotional responses from the customers and focus on the relationship building with the customer rather transaction to purchase product and services.
According to Hung (2013) the purpose of the hotel is to effectively deploy and leverage the skills, competencies along with technologies. The competencies are developed through networks is useful to offer value proposition to the customers through considering customer as co-producer in the value chain.
Lovelock et al. (2014) assessed that customer experience is made of the meaning interaction as well as sensation for change which result in creation of the emotional connections. The service experience dimension in the Chinese hotel showed that six experience factors include communication and organisation (process deliver) as well as welcoming, recognition, empathy and helpful. (Hung, 2013; Lovelock et al., 2014)
Gopinath & Siciliano (2013) argue that the value perceived by the customer is largely depending upon the offering made by the customer rather features and this give them the experience based on their desire. Additionally, it is suggested that experiences should be treated as an economic offering which are distinct. Chinese hotel shows that recognition and helpful is critical components to creating positive customer experience. The attitude factor which is considered too high valued to create the customer experience.
Marquardt (2011) indicated that the important factors which are emotions and behaviour developed the cognitive and believe to have a positive impact on the customer experience. It is important to understand the important cognitive in order to deliver positive and influence customer value proposition and create the customer experience. (Uysal, Perdue and Sirgy, 2012)
The objective of the research is to analyse the factors of customers experience which effect on a hotel in China. The exploration of the factors which affect the customers in the hotel is examined from the experiential design of service. The identification of the factors and their interpretation using the case study approach which will help to analyse and evaluate these factors in Chinese hotel industry. (Johnston & Kong, 2011; Johnston & Clark, 2008)
“The factors of customers experience which effect on hotel in China”
In the recent times, a competition has become a significant factor in the hotel industry and it is important to retain customers. The options available to the customers have opened more choices and customers prefer to choose product and customer which provide long lasting experience. Therefore, this research examines the influence factors which affect customer experience and develop understanding these factors which will allow creating a differentiation competitive advantage for the Hotels.
Customer need to personal involvement in the service process and customers’ every contact with the hotel is a hands-on experience and analysis of these influence factors of customer experience play an important role in the hotel industry. As the hotel industry gradually standardised, there is the majority of hotels cannot continuous innovation and consequently enhancing the competitiveness is the core problem of the hotel.
Consequently, this dissertation will provide a framework of the factors which affect the hotel customer experience. Moreover, the objective is that framework will assist the hotels to improve service qualities and win more loyal customers. (Haemoon et al., 2007; Johnston & Kong, 2011; Wei & Huang, 2013)
The purpose of this dissertation is to analyse the factors that affect customer experience in the hotel industry of China. The first chapter enclosed the introduction, research questions as well as highlight the value of the experience economy in the hotel industry. The second chapter of the dissertation includes literature of customer experience is organized, especially for the definition of customer experience, properties and features along with customer experience design and blueprint.
The third chapter of the study bounded the research methodology and integrate case study in order to examine who analysis will be conducted. The fourth chapter is based on the analysis of the case studies and summarising the result. The fifth chapter includes the conclusion and proposed the framework which indication the factors which are vital for effective experience design in service delivery.
An Explanatory research will be undertaken for this research because it is useful to develop the understanding about the subject. Exploratory research is unstructured and informal research process that is largely taken to gain background information of the research problem. (Goldkuhl, 2012) The unstructured process means that it does not have formalized a plan or set of objectives or questionnaire. Exploratory research is a systematic as well as flexible approach as it allows the researcher to explore and extend the problem. (O’Dwyer and Bernauer, 2013)
According to Stebbins (2011) secondary analysis based on the qualitative data involves the use of the existing to explore and answer the research questions which are different from the original research question.
According to Yin (2013) the advantage of the case studies in comparison with other research methodology includes that case study is useful to answer the why and how questions from the existing data on the current phenomena. The researcher does not have control or influence on the situation and this allows the opportunity to explain the outcome from the certain event and draw conclusion from the situation. (Yin, 2013)
Mills et al (2006) mentioned that case studies are useful analyse and evaluate the data from different sources which also to explore the outcome and generalise the scenario. The conclusion and finding from the case study approach offer deeper insight and perspective on the problem and thus results and compelling and more likely to get validate.
Case study approach allows generalise the results and finding based on the large population sample. To conduct the case study multiple case study approach (holistic) design is available which allows conducting the analysis from multiple scenarios and events. (Mills, Bonner and Francis, 2006)
This chapter of the dissertation enclosed the literature review on the customer experience and it design experience in service delivery in the Chinese hotel industry. The First section enclosed empirical studies on the customer experience. The second section of the literature review enclosed detail analyses and evaluation of the customer experience as well as characteristic of customer experience. The third section of the study enclosed the service models and frameworks to analyse how service and customer experience is evaluated. Section four discusses the influential factors of customer experience in hotel industry.
The earliest concept of consumption experience was presented by Norris in 1941, He emphasised the point which promotes customer consumption was not the products itself, but the services which attached on the products. Holbrook and Hirschman (1982) further extended the idea, they thought that consumption experience of affection, fantasy and entertainment has significant value to the customer.
Holbrook and Hirschman (1982) also emphasised that pleasure in mind and self-worth has become a factor which consumers pay more attention in the process of shopping. Moreover, Toffle (1970) indicates that the purpose of economic activity is not the output, but the consumption experience. (Holbrook, 1994; Grove & Fisk, 1997; Bitner et al., 1997)
Customer service consumption process is also the process of emotional experience (Barlow and Maul, 2000), and more customer values embody in the consumption experience (Boswijk, T and E, 2007). In addition, all the products to perform services are only in providing a consumption experience (Abbott, 1995).
Gronross (1983) defined customer service experience as the customer’s perception to enjoy services. Moreover, customer service experience is also the customer’s emotional reactions during service (Hui and Bateson, 1991), and it is for the reactions of specific services event by cognitive, emotional and behavioural (Kozak, Andreu and Gnoth, 2013)
Addis and Holbrook (2001) argue that any customer experience is based on the experience of utilitarianism and hedonism. Therefore, the customer experience will be important influencing factors for enhancing the competitive advantage of a company (Zomerdijk and Voss, 2011).
Torres et al (2014) reflected that enterprise consciously takes commodity as props and service as its stage, and insert personalised consumer to a memorable event so that experience is presented. At the same time, the product is replaceable, the commodity is tangible, and service is intangible while the experience is unforgettable.
Cetin & Dincer (2014) defines the experience from two aspects of supply and demand. Experience from the perspective of demand is a kind of psychological feeling and supply perspective it is a kind of economic offer which is relative to goods and services. The understanding of the experience is mainly explained from two aspects of supply and demand. The two important proposition and position of experience is to differentiate is that service experience is not a product or commodity, but it is ‘experience service delivery design’ which is incorporated into processes and experience (Veríssimo and Loureiro, 2014).
An essential feature is unforgettable and can be recalled based on the experience of the customer. Schmitt (1999, 2015) argues that experience is caused by stimulate the individual or make the individual involve in something, and it is inner individuation of people. It is not a public product; the experience of any two people can’t exactly the same, because they have different personal psychological state.
Prebensen & Rosengren (2015) comments that the experience from the interaction between customers and company or company representative. There is no participation with the customer; the experience is unlikely to happen and the experience includes customer’s participation, value and memorable. (Prebensen and Rosengren, 2015)
Wei & Huang (2013) examined that there are a plenty of research on characteristics of customer experience from multiple perspectives. Firstly, participatory Experience is based on the five senses, but the only feeling is not enough? It comes from the results of customer interact with the product, service or brand which reflects the deeper comprehension and insight into life, only personally involved (Ariffin and Maghzi, 2012)
Secondly, diversity and customer experience is created by the connection between the subject and object. The kind of connection is changed, then, the customer experience will change. Thirdly, perceptibility Customer experience is a psychological process through sensation and perception. It will form certain concepts, reasoning and judgement for experience then from the experience for the whole event. (Orel and Kara, 2014)
The perception of experience in consumer’s mind and the experience value completely determined by the consumer oneself situation. Holbrook (1994) based on the former research subdivision: efficiency, excellence, status, esteem, play, aesthetics, ethics and spirituality. Thus value emphasises the practical utility gained by the consumer, mainly if customer’s experience demand can be satisfied through a product or service. Finally, inducing Customer is the subject of experience, but customer could not spontaneously produce an experience.
Schmitt (2015) comments that experience is attached to the product or service and i.e. enterprise needs to provide a suitable environment and facilities if customer would like to have an expected experience. The experience is created in customer’s mind through certain stimulation.
The strength of the studies is that it has highlighted the importance and types of the customer’s experience. However, different types of the experiences are perceived by the customer and their impact to shape up the perception of the customers. The two important elements such as participatory and perceptibility experience have helped to determine the factors which impact the customer and make the customer experience. The shortcoming associated is the lack of the explanation how these factors react and their possible role as well as interaction in providing the overall customer experience.
Bartsch (2012) indicated that customer experience includes educational, escapist, entertainment and aesthetic. Entertainment experience is not only a kind of one of the oldest experience, and is a more advanced, common, intimate experience in today. It is passively experienced by feeling, such as watching, listening to music and read articles such as entertainment.
Akaka et al (2015) educational experiences are similar to entertainment experience; customer obtains the knowledge which is not very clear for them. However, unlike entertainment experience, Education experience includes more active participation from customers.
Ramaswamy & Ozcan (2015) customers draw on information when they play into this through education experience. In addition, escapist experience with entertainment experience in opposite directions, the escapist fully indulge in it, at the same time, they are also more active participants. It is like an experience for escaping from the reality, and customers actively participate in an immersion environment. Besides, in the aesthetic experience, Customer immersed in one thing or the environment, and they only have little impact on the kind of things and environment, or almost do not affect. (Rosenbaum, Moraru and Labrecque, 2012)
Edvardsson & Hoykinpuro (2011) argued that the first to be divided customer experience into Utilitarian Experience and Hedonic Experience. Utilitarian Experience refers to customer’s experience for utilitarian products, such as the torch, a pen or a room. On the contrary, Hedonic experience refers to customer create emotional or fantasy experience by using products and get more satisfaction out of it. It also focuses on pleasure experience of buying process. And this kind of non-instrumental hedonic value is more emphasis on the value of the experience and emotional. Past consumer behaviour research points out that determine the key of consumer intent is the value orientation of product practical or hedonic. (Sheng and Teo, 2012)
Frank et al (2014) stated that it is completely standing in the perspective of the enterprise; his think experience is the response of individual though receives some stimuli, such as sales effects. And he emphasis on the need of enterprise strategy and attract customers ‘corresponding experience through design strategy experience.
Khan & Rahman (2014) contemporary examines that Strategic Experiential Modules which is one of the most widely recognised theories at present. It proposed five experiences and referred to as sense, feel, think, and act and relate. The sense experience includes aesthetics and sensory qualities; it is based on the five senses appeal – vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Moreover, coincident with research in the behaviour of the customer (Richins 1997), the feel experience includes moods and emotions. In addition, the demands of thinking experience are intelligence; it includes convergent analytical and divergent imaginative thinking.
Besides, Act refers to motor actions and behavioural experiences; the goal of art experience changes consumer lifestyle through the long-term experience of the body and interacts. Finally, relate refers to social experiences such as relating to a reference group. It creates a powerful experience through social and cultural significance to interact with consumers. (Schmitt & Zarantonello, 2013; Schmitt, 2015)
The strength of the theories is that it highlights how the overview experience is build up and their interaction of the various factors in the development of the customer experience. The environment and types of the experience are analysed in order to understand the dimensions and dynamic of the developing customer experience. The highlight of the theories is that mentioned the personal factors impact as well as organisation resource and their value to create and provide a positive experience.
The shortcoming of the studies is that it explains the experience in general and does not specify how various factors impact upon the experience development of the customers. The important is that the customer experience development process is understood and analysed from the product and resource perspective.
According to Tomforde et al. (2011) organisations are facing continuous change and to manage the process and control, an organisation is composed of the loosely defined systems which make an architectural blueprint. Moreover, Kostopoulos et al. (2012) stated that the service blueprint involves the evaluating the design of the system which provide a metaphor for the experiential services.
Nevertheless, to analyse and evaluate the customer experience rather discussing the architectural blueprint, it is important to study the experience design and service blueprint. Moreover, James et al. (2014) highlighted that the experiential service design is based on the organisational learning model. The learning is based on the four components which are intuiting; interpreting, integrating as well as institutions and they interact on the feedback and feed forward mechanics. Therefore, interaction occurs at three levels which are individual, group and organization.
Source: adapted from Gopinath & Siciliano (2013)
James et al. (2014) highlighted that the experiential service design is based on the organisational learning model. The learning is based on the four components which are intuiting; interpreting, integrating as well as institutions and they interact on the feedback and feed forward mechanics.
Therefore, interaction occurs at three levels which are individual, group and organization. Su et al (2016) emphasized tht fact is supported by which suggested value received is measured at different stages of the consumption process.
Source: (Johnston, Clark and Shulver, 2012)
Therefore, three important stages which made up the customer experience are based on the pre-stay experience, during stay experience as well as after stay experience of the customer. Xie & Heung (2012) analysed that customer experience develops at different stages which includes before the customer interact with hotel, during stay and consumption at hotel as well as assessment after the experience. These stages integrate into experience of the customer. Su & Hsu (2013) observed that customer satisfaction is made of the two things which include the transaction specific and overall satisfaction to present a holistic view.
The strength of the studies is that it helped to understand how experience and service blueprint are indulged in the evaluation of the design of the system which provide a metaphor for the experiential services. The range of the factors are examined and analysed from the organisation perspective which translate the resources into customer experience.
The important area evaluates that how resources impact upon the experience building of the customer at the various stages of the service. The limitation is that it does not indicate how it interacts and build upon the customer experience factors and provide a holistic perspective.
According to Teixeira et al (2012) the service design is important as it highlights how improvement in the service can be made by applying and managing the design thinking. Hsiao et al (2015) analysed that the service design and experience creates the emotional connection which results in reinforcement of the life experiences. According to Gazzoli et al (2013) customer value is an important element which influenced by the need of the customers and composed of the emotional predisposition.
The three distinct elements which made up the value and effect the customer experience is based on three perceptions which are customers previous image about the brand, value at the time of the purchase and during consumption as well as value assessment after the service. This value concept is consistent with utilitarian perspective which is based on the cost and benefit received. (Goldstein, 2014)
Source: Johnston & Kong , 2011 , p.07
Cambria et al (2012) represent that emotions can be categories into three dimensions which are negative, positive as well as bi-dimensional. The positive emotions are useful to develop a positive relationship with customer and influence the customer experience. According to Oakland (2014) the focus of the service quality depends upon the process of the delivery but is not relevant with the outcome of the service delivery.
This model applies the psychology literature which considers the effect of the behaviour, attitude as well as emotions which are examined through the personality. Consequently, Customer experience and its delivery are critical factors because it adds value, emotions as well as memories that matter rather provision of good and services to the customers. (Karmarkar and Karmarkar, 2014)
The strength of the experience design and customer value studies is that it highlighted the how service design is useful to develop and improve service quality and provide customer experience by managing the design thinking. The impact and interaction of the various variables in design thinking and how they interact in order to provide better value to the customers is analysed and evaluated. The number of personal factors and their role in providing value to the customer has helped to understand the design thinking and its connection with customer value. The significant short coming is that it examines the variables in isolation rather building the organisational and customer perspective in border context.
Johnston et al (2012) emphasized that experience design is a broad as well as emerging concept which involves not only the service design but also enclosed the design thinking, product design, architecture, storytelling and linguistic. The fundamental of the experience design is that it is useful to persuade, inform, stimulate, influence, forecast events and behaviour modification. The shift of the service design to experience design involves the experiences of the customer as well as experiences of the employees.
Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2012) proposed that the important perspective which useful in experience design is that it give less meaning to attachment to the objective but emphasis on the relationship, feeling and meaning which an objective desire and reflect. The experience design is made up of transaction and consumption of the service in which functionality, as well as usability, are critical components. (Kozak, Andreu and Gnoth, 2013)
Prebensen et al (2012) highlighted that the experiential service design is important and based on three important areas which are a physical facility, touch points as well as management systems. The integration of these components delivers customer value. The customer experience factors which are positive and negative can evaluate based on the interpersonal factors.
Hsieh et al (2013) the interpersonal efforts and engagement of the employees plays an important role in desire satisfaction of the customer and consequently experience. The organisation related factors of the hotel also play an important role to develop the customer experience. (Newbery and Farnham, 2013)
Schmitt (2015) added that the experiential design model emphasis on interaction between the service delivery as well as aesthetic factors to create and develop the relationship with customers based on specific resources and context. This approach proposed more holistic framework to study the service and experience customer.
Source: Johnston & Kong, 2011, p.37
The theories have helped to understand how experience is managed and established from the various factors. The interaction of the personal and organisational factors and their impact on the consumer in terms of their service delivery experience has highlighted the dimensions of the experience design based on the customer experience constitution and characteristic. The limitation associated is that the studies do not include the service blueprint and they perceived to interact with range of variables. the focus of the studies are on experience design is that it give less meaning to attachment to the objective but emphasis on the relationship, feeling and meaning.
Customer will have “service experience” after they enjoy the service, which means that the interaction between hotel related system, procedure, staff and customers (Bitner et al., 1997). The hotel is not just a guest room, restaurant and other providers, but also the planners of this beautiful feeling. Customer will comes first and experience as a standard to judge the hotel service.
Meanwhile, the hotel as an enterprise which provides room and service to customer in the “specific space” and its operation mode has obviously experiential. The demand for social sense of belonging and identity indicates self-worth and consumption view is the important factor of hotel which affects customer experience (Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2012; Schmitt, 2015)
Source: Johnston et al, 2012
According to Hsieh et al (2013) customer experience in the hotel customer experience is also affected by individual factors and group factors. The hotel is a multidimensional experience places. At the same time, the hotel’s other customers also have a positive or negative impact for the experience of another customer. Teixeira et al (2012) Customer will make a high praise to the environment when the environmental atmosphere and music to coordinate each other. The two important factors which affect the customer experience are personality and warmth.
Bill Xu & Chan (2010) mentioned that factors which affect the customer experience are service quality, functional factors and organisational factor. The competencies are developed through networks is useful to offer value proposition to the customers through considering customer as co-producer in the value chain. (Johnston and Clark, 2008) The customer experience factors and strategies are discussed below.
Source: Johnston et al, 2012, p.190
This approach proposed more holistic framework to study the service and experience customer. This perspective is further support by the Schembri (2009) which highlighted that the importance of brand which develop the customer experience. The next important factor which shapes the customer experience is ownership factor. For example, researches have shown that branded hotels were outperformed by the independent hospitality business. Similarly, the personality impact and its contributions to customer experience were greater than branded hotels.
The literature review has highlighted the important element of the customer experience. The analysis of the studies showed the characteristic of the customer and how the impact upon the customer. Moreover, types and constitution of the customer experience are useful to evaluate that how the overall customer is creating as well as the reaction and perception of the customer.
The service design is elaborate and how it interacts with various factors. The important element of the literature is the examination of the service; how value is perceived and delivers to the customer as well as the how the system design to build design experience and service delivery is examined.
At last, not least, organisation, personal as well as function factors reviewed to develop a better understanding on the service design and environmental factor influence on the customers.
This chapter enclosed the research methodology which will be used to analyse, evaluate and explore the objectives of the dissertation. According to Krishnaswamy et al (2009) research methodology and research design have a vital role in achieving the objectives of the research. The success of the research is based on the design of the research. The research methodology used in this is ‘exploratory research’ which will useful to develop insight on the factors of customer experience which effect on the hotel in china.
Thomas (2003) suggested that the exploratory approach is useful to analyse the secondary data. The data used is the previous cases, journal articles as well as document analysis to identify and analyse the situation. The objective of the research is to analyse the factors of customers experience which effect on Chinese hotels.
Exploratory research is conducted when the researcher does not have much information about the problem and want to discover new information. Moreover, Mills et al (2006) argued that the purpose of the exploratory research is to gain additional information on topic or about the problem i.e. it is known as informal research. Exploratory research is a systematic as well as flexible approach as it allows the researcher to explore and extend the problem. Moreover, exploratory research is useful to understand the problem and gain background information and establish research priorities.
This dissertation is build a model of the influence factors of hotel customer experience and analyse the key factors that influence the customer experience. Thereby assist to hotels improve service qualities and win more loyal customers through the model and analysing. (Rothenberger, 2013)
According to Cox et al., (2011) secondary data analysis involves the process of searching new information through interpretation existing information which (Blaikie, 2009)is relevant to research objectives. Secondary data is set of data which is collected for some other purposes. The sources of the secondary data include magazines, reports, books, journal articles as well as newsletters.
Blaikie (2009) assessed that the method of analysing the secondary is often at core of exploratory research. Secondary data analysis involves the analysing the information which was gathered by someone else. The advantage of secondary data analysis is that it offers cost effective way as well as time involve in is minimum. (Goldkuhl, 2012)
According to Stebbins (2011) Secondary analysis based on the qualitative data involves the use of the existing to explore and answer the research questions which are different from the original research questions. The use of secondary data to conduct the secondary analysis has gained interest because of the narratives offered by the researchers that secondary data offer valuable insight.
Heshusius & Ballard (1996) argued that secondary data analysis is cost-effective way of gaining an insight and develop broad understanding on the research question. Secondary analysis of the qualitative secondary data is useful to critically assess the theory and finding from the existing research in order to generate, consolidate and synthesise of finding from the multiple studies.
Goldkuhl (2012) focused that the objective is to balance between the primary data and secondary research question is essential. Moreover, research questions designed are close to the primary research as well as data collection and analytical techniques should be related to primary dataset.
According to Connaway & Powell (2010) (Mills, Bonner and Francis, 2006)sampling is known as selecting the sample data from the large population. The data collection from everyone in the community in order to valid the finding is difficult task. Therefore, in qualitative research a sample from the population is selected to study for given problem. The research objectives as well as characteristic of the population are significant factors in selection to analyse what is to study.
Brace (2013) mentioned that ‘quota sampling’ is researcher decide during the design of the study that which participants to study and characteristic of the population. The selection criteria offer the flexibility to choose the focus of the study in terms experience and information which is useful to gain insight on the research topic. (Brace, 2013)
According to Yin (2013) the advantage of the case studies when compare with other research methodology includes that case study is useful to answer the why and how questions from the existing data on the current phenomena. The researcher does not have control or influence on the situation and this allows the opportunity to explain the outcome from the certain event and draw conclusion from the situation.
Polonsky & Waller (2010) mentioned that case studies are useful analyse and evaluate the data from different sources which also to explore the outcome and generalize the scenario. The conclusion and finding from the case study approach offers deeper insight and perspective on the problem and thus results and compelling and more likely to get validate.
Case study approach allows generalize the results and finding based on the large population sample. To conduct the case study multiple case study approach (holistic) design is available which allows conducting the analysis from multiple scenarios and events. This study involves using multiple case study approach based on the holistic design to analyse the data and develop results from various scenario, events and studies. (Yin, 2009; 2013) (Yin, 2013)
According to Ary et al., (2009) documents are useful source of information on the phenomena that is been investigated and document exist independent of the researcher actions. The case studies, articles and books are independent to highlight the factors in different perspective rather produce for the current study.
The data analysis can be influenced or changed by the researcher and can be combined into single case. The benefit offered by the document analysis is that it is cost effective, unbiased as well as non-reactive way of studying and analysing the problem. (Blatter and Haverland, 2012)
According to Bryman & Bell (2011) emphasised that the fundamental difference between the Qualitative and Quantitative research is the degree of flexibility as methodology used to examine the scenarios and events associated.
According to Mills et al., (2006) qualitative approach is concerned with developing an understanding of the social event and consequently derives result from the scenario. The researcher cannot separate itself from the situation in case of the qualitative approach and it is useful to understand the relationship among the variables.
It allows the flexibility to understand the various theories, concepts as well as characteristic to develop deep perspective in relation to research question. The objective is to describe the variations and explain the relationship among the variables. The research design is flexible and response of the participants effects how researcher asks the question. (Blaikie, 2009)
According to Maxwell (2012) quantitative approach is analytic approach is useful to present the numerical data. Quantitative research is useful to confirm the hypothesis about the phenomena and instruments used are based on the rigid style. It is based on highly structured method such as survey, observation and questionnaire. The objective of the quantitative research is to quantify the variations and establish the casual relationship.
Edgar (2004) suggested that the question format used in based on the closed end questions and data format is usually numerical. The research design is based on the rigid structure and participant’s responses do not influence how and what question researcher asked. The design of the research is based on the statistical computation.
The qualitative secondary data analysis is useful for this study is because the research questions are different than the original research but existing data is useful to develop better insight as well as develop grounds for further research. The useful of the qualitative dataset has gained interest because the archived dataset offers a range of narratives and discussion which are useful and related to the primary research. (Ritchie, Jane Lewis and Ormston, 2013)
For example, the case studies on the Chinese hotel and customer experience does not provide a holistic perspective and this research attempt to analyse and evaluate the number studies to propose a compressive framework which allows the hotel to develop a better understanding of the internal and external and design experience which deliver quality service. The nature of this study is to analyse the consumer behaviour (Cognitive factors) therefore, a qualitative approach is suitable. This would allow to examine and strength the social perspective through understanding the behaviour and attitude of individual and organisations. (Silverman, 2010)
Source: Johnston et al, 2012, p.103
The qualitative secondary data is useful for this dissertation because of the ‘elusive population’ associated with the dissertation and existing time and resources are major constraints to access such the large population. The objective of the research is ‘corroboration’ by re-examining the primary questions based on the existing case studies. The use of the qualitative secondary data is a valuable option with time and resource limitation. (Camfield, 2014)
The existing case studies on the Chinese hotels provide an opportunity to develop new framework, models, ideas as well as theories through re-analysis, replication and re-interpretation of the existing research. The benefit of the qualitative secondary research is that it will allow summarising the wide range of data in order to generate the new knowledge (framework) for the customer experience management in the Chinese hotel industry.
The benefit achieved from the secondary qualitative data will be a generalisation of the number of studies, understand the descriptive and historical perspective, developing new methodological insights and the result will include the data from a large population. (Hackett, 2015)
It is important to understand that whether research conducted is inductive or deductive. Inductive approach is useful to summarise the social events from various scenarios through confirming the hypothesis rather presenting a new model or theory. It allows building theory and proposing result through generalisation of the phenomena.
On the other hand, a deductive approach is useful to test and confirm the hypothesis. Therefore, in this dissertation inductive approach is used to analyse the various theories, studies, models to generalise the situation and present a narrow perspective. (Moore, Parker and Rosenstand, 2011)
Constructionism is useful to perceive the social reality through interpretation, analysis and understanding the social event. This gives meaning to the social event and scenario which allow drawing the results. Constructionism allows to develop and build the knowledge into social reality but it does not involve in the building the social reality itself. It helps to view the scenario from various stakeholders’ perspective. Therefore, phenomenal approach along with constructionism allows drawing positive results and developing an understanding from the case studies. (Andrews, 2012)
Triangulation involves more than one approach to investigate the research problem and develop confidence in the finding. Triangulation improves confidence and it is useful in the behavioural research. The idea behind the triangulation approach is the confirmation of the proposition from two or more independent event or measurements which reduce the uncertainty to greater extent. There are different types of triangulation such as data triangulation, researcher triangulation as well as methodological triangulation. (Sarantakos, 2012)
The data triangulation is useful in this study because of the useful of the use of the multiple case studies. The data gathered during different time and in different situation which result in vary social context. Therefore, data triangulation would allow minimising the possibilities of error and increasing confidence in the findings. Therefore, triangulation is useful tool to cross and validate range of studies provide the completeness to bring balance to the research. (Amorett and Preyer, 2011)
According to McNulty (2011) Triangulation is an important strategy to strength and develops the confidence in the result and finding of the case study research. It helps to reduce the personal as well as methodology bias when generalizing the results from various sources.
Loera et al., (2010) highlighted that triangulation makes generalization of data collected and evaluated from various sources more reliable and dependable. In this dissertation, triangulation is managed through collection of the data from multiple sources which increase the result reliability based on the generalization of the data. Therefore, triangulation will ensure the confidence, validity and reliability of the results.
The issues related to conduct any research involves fidelity and confidentiality and these principles are applicable to the secondary research. However, the element of informed consent is not required in case of secondary data analysis. Nevertheless, it is important to consider that researcher consider that re-use of data violates any agreement between the participant and original researcher. (Blatter and Haverland, 2012)
The ethical issues of the consent may arise when the two or more previous studies are collected to make comparison and conduct further research. (Miller et al., 2012) The ethical behaviour is based on the moral principles and standards and the basic principles of the ethical standard are researcher do not breach the privacy of the participants and keep the confidentially of the information.
Moreover, researcher avoids the inappropriate behaviour and all the data should be interpret without distortion and personal bias. In this research no personal information of the research participant is closed and the material used is not subject to personal bias. There is no consent issues attached with this study. At last, not least, conflict of interest and imbalance has been avoided using multiple sources of data. (Hammersley and Traiano, 2012)
The design of the service is either based on the customer perspective or organisation perspective. However, Johnston et al (2000) have provided a new perspective of the developing the service design which includes complete set of stages. The service design enclosed wide range of idea and specification.
The concept of the service innovation is associated with the idea generation which include range of variables as input which includes the people, technology, processes as well physical system which affect the service delivery system and consequently impact upon the service delivery system and build the experience of the customer.
The literature reviews show that the service system design is based on the processes, people, and a technology which have a direct impact on the service delivery system of the organisation.
The customer characteristic, as well as the constitution of the customer, has been elaborated in the literature review. Schmitt (1999, 2015) argues that experience is caused by stimulate the individual or make the individual involve in something, and it is inner individuation of people and therefore, There is no participation with the customer; the experience is unlikely to happen and the experience includes customer’s participation, value and memorable.
Moreover, the impact of the variables on the customer and how they constitute the customer experience the highlighted multiple perspectives. The service design, experience and it value to the customer have been examined. Therefore, the overall objectives here to elaborate the case studies in the light of the literature and examined the input factors which affect the customer experience in the Chinese hotels.
The factors will be examined based on the various theories discussed in the literature which how these factor impact upon the Chinese customer experience. Moreover, the interaction and validation of the factors will allow to be integrated to develop a framework to assist the improve customer experience in the Chinese hotels.
This chapter enclosed the analysis of the case studies selected to examine the influence of the factors which affect the customer experience in the Chinese hotels. The analysis will be conducted in the light of the literature review to examine the range of the input factors which affect the customer experience. There are five case studies selected to analyse and each case study will be individually analysed and evaluated to determine the factors and their influence. After the in-depth analysis, the case studies will be generalised and summary of the finding will be presented.
In this study, the author examines the role of the innovation in the design of the service through service innovation and its benefits for the customers. The hotel, customer and system design impacts are examined and how can enhance the customer experience. The author stated that traditional business is linear and use of technology to develop and improve processes plays a critical role in the development of effective service.
According to Schmitt (1999) argues that experience is caused by stimulate the individual or make the individual involve in something, and it is inner individuation of people. Therefore, the customer experience stimulation can be managed through technology which allows the employee to provide effective service.
The author stated that customer not just check in the hotel but get involve is every aspect of the hotel services. The study examined the hotel operation and service design development from the perspective of hotel and customer.
Hirschman and Holbrook (1982) is the first to be divided customer experience into Utilitarian Experience and Hedonic Experience. The point is analysed by the author stating that to provide and enhance the customer experience the focus has a shift from the product to service and through integrated service design system value is created and customers are co-creators.
Newman and Sheth (1991) argue that customer experience including function, society, emotion and value of knowledge. To support the point author stated that service design through innovation plays to enhance the emotional experience and become an important source of competitive advantage.
Lasalle (2003) pointed out that everyone will intrude individual value, beliefs, preferences and history into the experience, which makes the different people have a different experience. The author evaluated in that range of factors such hotel design, environment of the hotel rooms, value added facilities as well as exterior and interior of the hotel have direct impact on the expectation of the customers.
According to Tomforde et al. (2011) organisations are facing continuous change and to manage the process and control, organisations is composed of the loosely defined systems which makes an architectural blueprint. The author evaluated that customer expectation is important to shape up the customer experience and the critical factors of customer satisfaction include operational flexibility and responsiveness, the speed of the service provided by the hotels and provision of all kind of facilities and amenities.
Webber et al. (2012) evaluated that the important differentiation is that experiences are different and distinct from the services in the same way as goods are different from services. The first factor which influences the customer experience is ‘personality’. The different point of view, as well as the limitations of the personal background, three theories, gives the customer experience different meanings and different classification. Prebensen et al (2012) proposed that important factor related to attitude and personality is welcoming of the customers.
To summarise author discussed the service quality factors at individual level which is customer service attitude (empathy and welcoming) and usage of technology. At organisational it discusses the factors such as location, atmosphere and environment of the hotel. At last, not least, at functional level it designs of the processes and role of technology to improve processes is analysed. Author recommended that service design can be effectively improved and deploy through innovation and it have positive impact on the customer experience.
According to Rust & Huang (2014) service design involves both tangibles as well as intangibles such as artefacts, environment, and communication along with behaviours which help to deliver the service efficiently and effectively. In this case study, the author examined the physical product of the hotel associated with the delivery of the service. The range of factors design and location of the restaurant, bedroom, value facilities and amenities, as well as speed of the customer service, plays an important role in the development of the customer experience.
Moreover, Beltagui et al (2012) stated that the experiential service design is important and based on three important areas which are a physical facility, touch points as well as management systems. To support the perceptive, the studied evaluated that service level, efficiency of the services, cleanliness and guest safety, provision of state of art amenities, restaurant as well as responsiveness and speed of the services plays an important in the development of the customer experience.
The experiential design model is composed of the complex and unique bundle of tangible as well as an intangible offering which create value and emotional attachment for the customers. (Ali & Amin, 2014)
The case study analysed and evaluated that basic comfort factors such as cleanliness and attention to details have a critical role to effectively provide services to the customer. The customer service factors such as recognition (warmth and care) as well as friendly attitude are also important factors in order to develop positive association and experience for the customer. Kostopoulos et al. (2012) stated that the service blueprint involves the evaluating the design of the system which provide a metaphor for the experiential services.
The study finding stated that three important factors which are behaviour intention, customer service quality, as well as customer satisfaction, are important to influence factors in the development of the customer experience of the customer. The range of variables evaluated in the study which influence the customer experience includes environment (Visually attractive dining, comfortable and neat sitting and restaurant), personal factors such as responses to the people, responsiveness and speed of the reply and level of personal care), value added services (leisure and support activities) as well as general services (staff experience and skills as well as technology facilities and amenities. The process related design studies in the Chinese hotels indicate that touch point in the customer service to evaluate the post consumption experience.
According to Gazzoli et al (2013) customer value is an important element which influenced by the need of the customers and composed of the emotional predisposition. The study examines the role of the location and atmosphere of the hotel. These variables show a positive relationship with the customer experience provision of the customer. The pre-stays activities involve the support provided to the customer before the check-in such as online booking and market reputation.
Moreover, author evaluated that during the purchase the activities include employee training and knowledge. The organisation factors discussed by the author included the location and environment of the hotel. The basic factors which have an effect on the customer experience include the standards and comfort provided through amenities and facilities.
The study primary examines the service experience from the perspective of customers. According to Oakland (2014) the focus of the service quality depends upon the process of the delivery but is not relevant with the outcome of the service delivery. The study examines the tangibles factors such cleanliness, safety as well as comfortable. The outcome of the processes has a direct effect on the development of the customer experience and efficient processes impact upon the customer satisfaction. The study examines the effect of the customer service and personality of the employee through the perspective of the customer.
According to Cambria et al (2012) service design involves both tangibles as well as intangibles such as artefacts, environment, and communication along with behaviours which help to deliver the service efficiently and effectively. The study examines the empathy and its role in the provision of the positive customer experience.
The study argues that people-orientated approach is an important factor is influence the customer experiences. The empathy factors include the modern equipment used by the hotel, knowledge and skills of the employee, physical facilities as well as employees’ ability to understand the response to the need of the guest.
Customers have emotion because they ignore the functionality but focus on the desire and i.e. such stimuli are based on the experience of the customers. (McCabe, 2014) The finding of the study discusses that tangible factors of the hotel have a significant impact on the service quality and employees ability to response to the problem and resolve the issues critical attribute.
Therefore, tangible and intangible both factors have an impact on the influencing the customer experience in the china hotel industry. Therefore, the study supports the finding of Han (2010) which stated that interpersonal efforts and engagement of the employees plays an important role in desire satisfaction of the customer and consequently experience.
The study further evaluates that better service quality has significant effect in terms of the development of the customer attitude and provision of the better customer would allow the hotel effectively use their resources which result in increased satisfaction of the customers. In addition, there is a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and employees understanding of the needs of customers. The significant factor is a customer.
According to Su & Hsu (2013) the customer experience develops at different stages which include before the customer interact with the hotel, during stay and consumption at the hotel as well as an assessment after the experience. These stages integrate into the experience of the customer.
To summarise, study evaluated that customer value the intangibles factors such as technology provision of the hotels. The during stay experience involve both tangible and intangible factors such as recognition (care and personal attitude of the employee), Standards and characters which include the tangibles amenities and facilities provided by the hotel as well as the employee knowledge and skill are a significant effect on the customer experience in the hotel industry.
The service quality is an important determinant of the customer satisfaction in the hotel industry. According to Schmitt (1999) the demand for a social sense of belonging and identity indicates self-worth and consumption view is the important factor of the hotel which affects the customer experience. The study analysed that the range of variables skills of the employees, service initiatives and technology for processes as well as the environment of the hotel is an important factor which influence the customer satisfaction. These factors which affect the customer experience are service quality, functional factors and organisational factor. (Liao et al., 2015)
The study evaluated the important perspective proposed by the Yang & Lau (2015) which highlighted that the importance of brand which develops the customer experience. The results show that the brand experience has significant impact on the perception of the customers. The study examined that the luxury and international hotels have more favour attitude and customer brand value impact the perception of the customer.
Therefore, it important factor which shapes the customer experience. According to Peng et al (2015) important criterion which shape and affect the customer experience includes quality of the food in the hotel along with the spacious environment. Experiences involve delivery of service with expertise, enthusiasm as well as style which are critical to create memorable experience for the customer. (Maklan & Klaus, 2011)
The study analyses the reliability measure which are an important aspect of the organisational related factor and the greater degree of influence on the customers. The ranges of factors which author evaluate that ambience of the hotel and welcoming the guest. The information provided to the customers and modern facilities was analysed as a key factor which influence the experience of the customer. Experience design is that it is useful to persuade, inform, stimulate, influence, forecast events and behaviour modification. (Penner et al., 2013)
Beltagui et al. (2012) the three important factors which influence the emotions are made up of compelling, engaging and consistency. The design is known as discrete practices in terms of tangible outcomes which are achieved through problem-solving and planning. The study shows that knowledge and ability of the employee to communicate with a guest to provide accurate and reliable information is also a critical aspect of the customer experience. Moreover, the data analyses show that customers value range of skills such efficient problem solving, prompt services, communication skills as well as ability to cater the need of the customers.
The experiential design model is composed of the complex and unique bundle of tangible as well as an intangible offering which create value and emotional attachment for the customers. The range of factors which develop and deliver the customer experience through improving services include brand language; touch point analysis as well as customer perception. The customer satisfaction attributes include employee’s responsiveness to customer needs, cleanliness and attentiveness, quality of food, communication ability of the employees, ability to resolve problems as well as the location of the hotel.
According to Subramanian et al (2015) the experiential design process recognised both intention and process which result in the integration of the social, economic, emotional and functional benefits. The study evaluates the range of tangible and intangible factors location of the hotel, price and promotion, accessibility, the appearance of the employee and state of art facilities. The studied argued that tangible factors are critical to the influence the customer service.
Therefore, it helps to build a service blueprint which helps in evaluating the experience from the customer perspective. The Chinese customers mentioned that factors such as willingness to serve the customer, welcoming, personal care and ability to handle the guest problems. The study has focused the intangibles factors to greater extend and stated that employee’s competencies and knowledge are critical factors in order to influence the customer.
The experiential design model emphasis on interaction between the service delivery as well as aesthetic factors to create and develop the relationship with customers based on specific resources and context. (Hung, 2013)
The author argues that employees skills and attributes to quickly and efficiently to resolve the problem and prompt service influence the customer experience. The important element highlight from the Chinese hotel research is that service and attitude interaction is important based on the three factors which are recognition, identifying and understanding customer needs as well as anticipation of the desire of the customers.
The understanding of the guest needs and wants is imperative to increase customer satisfaction and positively influence the customer experience. The important factors such as customization of the services, ambience and reliability as well as the friendliness of the staff are important factors to influence the satisfaction of the customers. The study examines the range of attributes such as location, comfort, ease of understanding needs and comfort. The study shows that these factors have a significant influence on the customer experience. In addition, organisational variables examined are hotel reputation, the attitude of the staff as well as employee behaviour are factors which influence the customer experience.
The factors such as atmosphere (cleanness and smell) have greater degree of appeal for the customers have positive affect customer experience. Therefore, factors such as ambiance, quality of food, maintenance shape the customer experience. Moreover, the studies have shown that factors such as relaxed, feel special, comfort are important. The customer’s point of view, they were assumed that experience is the behaviour of fantasy, fun and emotion for the customer. Meanwhile, they emphasised the internal value of a customer, rather than any other external value goal.
This last chapter of the dissertation is based on the three sections. The first section of the study enclosed the discussion and evaluation of the results. The result and finding will be analysed and evaluated in the light of the literature to understand the factors influence on the customer experience. The factors will be summarised based on the different stages of customer experience. The next section enclosed the conclusion which summarise and elaborate the key finding.
The frame for the service operations management provided by Johnston & Clark (2008) highlighted four areas which are critical to develop and provide positive experience to the customers. The four factors are connect, deliver, improve and implment. The summary of factors from each case study which are vital to ‘connect’ the customer and organsation are given below.
Source: Johnston et al, 2012, p.37
The result of the case study analysis showed that the customer value the range variables which are present at the personal, organisation and functional level. The stimulation is critical factor which affect the customer behaviour. The range of factors from various studies helped to arrange the factors in categories (Figure 7 below) which helped to categories the factors based on stages and levels. For examples, the three stages which are pre-stay, during the stay and after are critical in order effective develop and influence the customer experience.
Source: Johnston et al, 2012, p.103
Therefore, the critical factors which affect the influence of the Chinese customers are arrange in three domains according to relevance. For example, before stay the organisational factors, as well as processes, are important whereas during stay all three factors are critical. Frank theory is useful to analyse the organisation experience and resources which are useful to develop a positive experience for the customer.
The gap analysis is important to understand the expectation of the customers, service provided as well as perceptions of the customers. The experiential design model has highlighted that it requires a bundle of the unique tangible as well as intangible factors which are important to create an emotional attachment and value for the customers. The range of such as physical appearance and service quality along with hard factors of the customer experience is such as age, culture as well as expectation. For the hotels, the performance and behaviour of their employee are important which required a greater focus of service delivery quality whereas tangible organisation factors are taken for granted by the customer.
The analysis has shown that at the organisational level the environment of the hotel is important. The factors such as quality of the food, state of art facilities as well as spacious environment have a powerful impact on the customer memory and translate into customer perception during and after the stay. The interaction of the organisation factors and customer emotion has strong reactive experience and emotions directly affect the outcome. Moreover, the impact of the personal factors is prominent during the stay of the customer.
The degree of the warmth welcome and positive interaction with the customers has a positive effect on the attitude of the customer. The analysis has highlighted that operational process design is influenced by the two key parameters which are transactions and variety of the task.
Source: Johnston & Kong, 2011, p.37
The simplicity includes offering low variety and volume to the customers. However, the case studies have highlighted that hotel have variety of service which variable level of the products and services offering. The level of the complexity in the luxury is relative high especially in order to develop and deliver quality services. The knowledge and skills of the employees, technology as well as up-to-date facilities is significant which affect the volume and variety of services.
The commodity (low variety and high volume) is more convenient approach for the hotels who intended to offer better value for money which offer standardized service and little room for the personal services. The hotels that offered standardized services and have location advantage are likely to get benefit from this approach. The capability (high variety and low volume) is the board spectrum which the service offered by the hotel is highly customized and significant different from the competitors to build competitive advantage.
The case study analysis has shown that individual own beliefs, experience as well as expectation and preference influence the customer experience. For example, it is evident that the customer service does not have hedonic value and the priority is the organisational and personal factors to provide the quality service to the customers. The two critical areas to focus include the experience and service design which is developed and deliver form the available resources.
The data analysis has highlighted that branded hotel have poor performance when to compare to the individual. Therefore, expertise and motivation are important to develop a positive experience for the customer. Moreover, it is evaluated from that lack of the engagement by the employees and attitude result in the negative experience for the customer.
Therefore, emotional factors are associated with the physical condition, quality of service as well as the skills of the customers. One of the differentiated factors highlighted fro case study analysis is that ownership of the hotel has a positive influence on the customers. Nevertheless, the study highlighted that branded hotel have a poor image and negative effect on the experience of the customers.
The design experience highlighted that personality impact and its contributions to customer experience were greater than branded hotels. The range of the employee attributes such as makes of smiling, greeting as well as makes the customer comfortable has great significance during the customer stay in the hotel.
Therefore, the combination of the cognitive service evaluation and emotion are useful to analyse, evaluate and predict the customer experience rather than just service quality only. Therefore, positive employee attitude is helpful to develop positive experience whereas when emotions are unbalanced and employees are untrained then the unbalance of the emotion and the reaction is rather negative.
Three emotional factors which have the significant impact on the customer experience were engagement, consistency as well as compelling emotions. The three stages required the organisation experience and resources which are useful to develop a positive experience for the customer.
The experiential design process recognised both intention and process which result in the integration of the social, economic, emotional and functional benefits. Therefore, the result of the data has shown that touch point, brand name, friend referral, past experience all made up the customer attitude towards the hotel. Another important personal and processes factor which affect the customer experience. The personality, warmth attitude and personal background all contribute towards the development of the system.
The organisation factors such its capability to resolve the problems and it makes positive customer influence of customer and helps to deliver quality service. Therefore, best experiences involve delivery of service with expertise, enthusiasm as well as style which are critical to creating a memorable experience for the customer. The summary of the factors is enclosed in figure 7 below
Figure 15 present the affiliation and connections between the customer experience factors which affect the customer experience in the hotels. The three stages of the customer experience which are associated with the hotel are the before-stay, during stay and after-stay. The stages contribute to the overall customer experience in the hotel industry. The factors which affect the customer include helpful staff in terms of the attitude and behaviour.
The personality factors include welcoming and empathy of the customer services staff. The problems include further sub-categories such as professionalism, friendly staff and warmth welcoming. Service design involves both tangibles as well as intangibles such as artefacts, environment, and communication along with behaviours which help to deliver the service efficiently and effectively.
During stay and after stay factors include quality of the food and location which further includes factors such as quality, safety and equipment of the hotel. The combination of the cognitive service evaluation and emotion are useful to analyse, evaluate and predict the customer experience. The important variables which have a high degree of association with customer experience are personal care and welcome attitude of the employees.
The three distinct elements which made up the value and effect the customer experience is based on three perceptions which are customers previous image about the brand, value at the time of the purchase and during consumption as well as value assessment after the service.
The interaction of various factors which develop the experience during different has different impact on the customer (ranked and evaluated in 5.4). Moreover, employee’s attributes which are customizations of the services, employee’s ability to meet the need of the customer, friendliness of the employees as well as the timeliness of the employees. Organisation experience and resources which are useful to develop a positive experience for the customer Characteristics of the individual customer are an important hard factor in customer experience development which includes including gender, age, profession, culture and expectations. Customer demand, guest safety and hygiene, technology and introduction of modern amenities all have a significant effect on the customer experience development. The tangible factors include which have a positive impact on the customer service is the appearance of the employees, amenities, quality of the food, friendliness of the employees as well as the professional behaviour of the customers.
The results show that the customer experience is influenced by the range of the factors. The factors are associated with the organisation (physical and human resources), personal factors (skills, expertise, attitude and behaviour of the employees) as well as the functional quality (environment) of the hotel. The resources and capabilities of the hotel have significant effect service design of the hotel which positively or negatively affects the customer. The generalisation of the studies has highlighted that customers experience developed at different stages which may before stay, during the stay or after stay.
The factors influence the customer in a collective manner rather each factor in the isolation. For example, functional capabilities of the hotel are very high but poor employee attitude and behaviour results in a negative experience for the customers. The data analysis shows that the emphases are given to each variable rather narrow perspective. The framework to categorise the customer experience factor is shows below which has been used to summarized the key factors from the case study.
The emotional and personal factors are key because of its power as well as it is reactive from the customer memory. The personal variables analysed includes warmth welcome, willingness to problem solving, attitude and behaviour as well as the recognition of the staff plays an important role.
The design experience is based on the good quality service which includes environment, artefacts as well as communication skills. The organisational factors such as location also consider by the customer because it helps to provide the tangible experience to the customer. The mix of the tangible and intangible experience delivers high-quality service to its customers. The attitude of the staff has significant impact while customers take the tangible factors for granted and focus on the conviviality elements of services.
The important consideration hotel managers’ service design has a direct impact on the customer experience. The traditional approach has changed and technology plays an important role to develop and deliver effective service design. The customer values, preference and past experience have a significant effect in order to translate customer service into the customer experience. The processes of the organisation make the architectural blueprint for the customer.
The expectations of the customers shape up customer experience and functional capabilities such as responsiveness and flexibility play an important role in the effective design of the service. The factors such as modern amenities, guest health and safety, hygiene as well as décor have a direct impact on the expectations of the customer and without additional efforts hotels can provide effective customer experience. These factors include quality of the service, customer service as well as virtual location affects provision of the service and these technical aspects positively influenced the customer expectation and develop customer experience.
Using the Johnston et al (2012), customer satisfaction framework, the above table summarise the customer experience factors in terms of their potential to delight as well as their potential to dissatisfy. The factors are categorised such hygiene factors which have high potential to dissatisfy but low ability to delight the customer. These factors include quality of the service, customer service; virtual location and provision of the services based on the technical aspect have a positive influence on the customers. These are the fundamental factors which are expected by the customer from the hotels.
The service quality attributes include the tangibles which are technology and hotel equipment, location, personality of the employees. The factors which enhance the customer experience include personalised and customized services as well as the quality of the food.
The customizable services, employee training and personalized services are important sources of customer satisfaction and consequently, influence the customer experience. The significant factors which enhance the customer experience highlighted by the study include appealing facilities and state of art equipment, knowledgeable and well-experienced employees as well as the quality of services and food.
The objective of the research is to analyse the factors of customers experience which effect on a hotel in China. The exploration of the factors which affect the customers in the hotel is examined from the experiential design of service. The identification of the factors and their interpretation using the case study approach which will help to analyse and evaluate these factors in Chinese hotel industry.
The case studies results and analysis has helped to achieve the objective through identification of the factors of customers experience which effect on hotel in China and developing a holistic perspective how these factors effect on different stages (pre-stay, during stay and after stay) as well as level (personal, organisational and functional) in the hotel industry.
Service design involves both tangibles as well as intangibles such as artefacts, environment, and communication along with behaviours which help to deliver the service efficiently and effectively.
Experience is attached to the product or service and i.e. enterprise needs to provide a suitable environment and facilities if the customer would like to have an expected experience. However, the range of studies has shown that organisational factors are specific to each hotel. Moreover, the location of the hotel is another key contributor to the customer experience. The functional experience involves the elegance such as décor and colouring which makes the customer feel special and affect the customer experience Moreover; the author examined that respondent to.
The functional element analysed by the study includes the elegance such as décor and colouring which makes the customer feel special and affect the customer experience. The intangibles are reliability, timely services and employee flexibility and responsiveness are the critical factors. This help to understand the relationship and important of the factors which further categorised in figure 5.4.
The study highlighted the factors of customers experience which effect on a hotel in China that personal factors are the behaviour and attitude of the friendly appearance of the employees (honest and helpful) as well as modern facilities. The employee’s attitude and professional are important factors which include the friendly attitude, warmth care and knowledge of the employee.
The organisational factors include cleanliness, comfortable and attention to details is important factors in the development of the guest experience. Moreover, the study evaluates. The study further analysed the role of the employee related attributes and their effect on the customer experience. The tangible factors such as comfortableness, safety and cleanness were the valued by the customer and consequently add to the positive experience for the customers.
The exploration of the factors which affect the customers in the hotel is examined from the experiential design of service. The case studies analysis highlighted that service design involves both tangibles as well as intangibles such as artefacts, environment, and communication along with behaviours which help to deliver the service efficiently and effectively. The experiential design model is composed of the complex and unique bundle of tangible as well as an intangible offering which create value and emotional attachment for the customers.
The study attributed that better service quality both tangible and intangible factors which include organisational factors as well as the individual factor of service quality. Reflections are directly affected by the ambivalence and guest may get dragged because of lack engagement and personality. The personality impact and its contributions to customer experience were greater than branded hotels. This makes of smiling, greeting as well as makes the customer comfortable. It is evident that independent hotel have high degree of warmth welcome and guest interaction an important factor.
The case study analysis highlighted the factors of customers experience which effect on a hotel in China and consequently shortcoming in the china hotels industry. The service design is important as it highlights how improvement in the service can be made by applying and managing the design thinking. The author evaluated that the range of success factors such as impact upon service design and consequently deliver value for the customers.
The range of factors which develop and deliver the customer experience through improving services include brand language; touch point analysis as well as customer perception. Therefore, in the case study author evaluated the role of the human resource in the service design is critical. The hotel industry has a lack of customer-orientated attitude and fails to deliver high-quality personalised customer service.
The lack of the customer oriented approach has a negative influence on the customer experience with the hotel. The next section highlights the recommendations to overcome such problems.
Using the Johnston et al (2012) service improvement framework, the recommedations and improvment offered for the hotel indutry. The experience design model is based on the complex and unique bundle of both tangible products and intangibles services which create value and emotional attachment for the customers.
The customer perception is influenced by the brand language and touch point analysis which consequently affect the customer experience. The diagram below highlights how hotel can achieve the balance between the commodities and capabilities through using the following strategies.
This represents the scenario in which organisation moves to offers solution to customer problems rather taking in-side out approach. This is achieved through investment in staff and technology. The case study analysis has highlighted that the important factors such as customization of the services, ambience and reliability as well as the friendliness of the staff are important factors to influence the satisfaction of the customers.
The service experience model highlights the interaction between service quality and aesthetic factors which are vital to developing relationship with customers based on the resources which affect the service level in the hotel industry. Therefore, this would allow to hygiene factors as well as enhance the customer experience.
This approach enables the organisation to take the border perspective which enables the hotel to learn from the experiences. The case study analysis has highlighted that the service quality is based on personal factors (recognition, empathy and welcoming), organisational factors (location, elegance and character) and functional factors (comfort, environment and standard) have a direct relationship which service design model and building customer experience.
The three important factors which affect the customer experience are the behaviour intentions, the satisfaction of the customers and quality of the customer service. The environment factors such as dining and comfortable and near sitting area, personal factor includes response and speed of reply to the customer and organisational factors are value added services (leisure and support activities) as well as general services (staff experience and skills as well as technology facilities and amenities.
Consequently, this would allow increasing the efficiency and improve the critical factor to increase customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, it is important that focus should be delivering high quality service.
The personality factors include welcoming and empathy of the customer services staff. The attitude and personality of the employees influence the pre-stay experience of the customer and their integration with other factors such as environment, artefacts and communication skills has a significant impact on the delivery of service. The factors such as service level and efficiency of the service, cleanliness as well as guest safety, responsiveness and speed of the service along with state of art amenities are important to shape up the customer experience.
The vital variables which have a great degree of relationship with customer involvement are personal care and welcome attitude of the personnel of the hotel. The service design of the hotel includes both tangible and intangible factors. The intangibles associated with hotels are behaviours, environment, artefacts and communication which deliver the service in efficient and effective manner.
The tangible factors of the hotels are quality of food, modern amenities and facilities as well as décor and artefacts, state of art equipment and noise level which influence the expectation of the customers. This approach would allow gaining the first mover advantage and offering services which enhance the customer experience.
This research has highlighted number of future research opportunities. The factors which are at the inter-organisational level can be examined (resourced-based view) and how these can be aligned with the customer expectation to deliver potential to satisfy of the customers.
The further study can be conducted in the field how these factors can be developed and design according to the size of the hotel and resource. The study of the customer experience factors from the consumer perspective could highlight new variables as well as it offers the opportunities for the hotel to align resources and increase customer satisfaction.
Another interesting topic which could be understood includes the emotional intelligence impact on the customer experience and how it impact on the experiential design. The study could be conducted to examine the factors in luxury hotels and these factors specifically design in the luxury hotels.
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