A comparative study on Multifunctionality urban design landscape and planning making factors during the development of city in developed and developing countries — Luzhou (China) and Lancaster (UK)

Chapter 1.0: Introduction

This chapter of study enclosed the background of research, research concept and context along with research aims and objectives.

1.1 Research overview

This research involves a comparative study to analyse and evaluate the multifunctionality urban design landscape planning factors in China and UK context. Landscape management is important to improve the quality of urban environment and improve multifunctionality of infrastructure through effective planning. The multifunctionality allows efficient and effective management of urban environment through spatial planning. The design and planning of Landscape is a complex, multi-faceted task, which is utilised to assurance an environmentally sustainable future for current and future generation.

Multifunctional Landscape is figured out how to upgrade and accomplish numerous capacities Design and planning is more centred on quality and exercises from locales. Landscape design and planning has been influenced via Landscape changes, which include social, economic and political changes (Bennett, 2013).

To review the landscape management two cities selected are Luzhou (China) and Lancaster (UK) which provide the prospects to explore and compare the multifunctionality in the two countries and develop knowledge for multifunctional improvement in China. The comparative case studies are used to review the factors which contribute towards management and improvement of multifunctionality and knowledge management in Chinese context.

1.2 Research background

Multifunctional landscape has become integral part of landscape design and planning in developed countries such as North America, UK and Europe. Multifunctionality is multi-facets concept and includes both man-made and natural features to ensure resources improve quality of life, resolving environment and social issues and limited the sprawl associated with urban lifestyle. Multifunctionality is core idea promoted in urban planning and policy making and deliver various functions within overlapping land unit and time for people.

Multifunctionality comprises five important themes which are economic function, ecological function, historical function, socio-cultural function and aesthetic function. Figure 1 below enclosed the core theme of landscape multifunctionality in urban areas (Hansen and Pauleit, 2014).

Multifunctionality

Figure 1: Theme of landscape multifunctionality

The concept of multifunctionality was developed for agriculture but expanded to urban landscape management. Multifunctionality landscape design and management recognised landscape policy, planning and management and provide support to planners, authorities and policy makers to address multifunctionality challenges in different ways. Therefore, multifunctionality provides framework for development and achieve multiple benefits from landscape planning and management.

In this context, this study conducts a comparative study to explore the planning factors and potential prospects to improve multifunctionality of urban landscape design and planning in China. The focus is to identify and appraise the multifunctionality context in the UK and China to improve quality of management and enhancing multifunction infrastructure in China future development (Selman, MacFarlane and McGloin, 2010).

1.3 Theoretical concept and Research context

1.3.1 Multifunctionality and landscape management

Multifunctionality is popular and recognised concept in landscape planning and management. It is vital source of sustainable development and comprise of network which includes open and green spaces, private and public conservation lands, natural areas and features as well as protected open spaces. Multifunctionality in landscape management is vital for improving quality of life as well as benefits from the urban and environment. Multifunctionality enhances and multiple the functions significantly for the natural environment. The integration of green networks, places and habitats provide cumulative benefits (Hansen and Pauleit, 2014).

Landscape management evolves planning and designing to promote open and green spaces. Landscape management is multi-facets task concerns with achieving long-term vision and shifting from traditional physical approach to emotional perspective beyond horticulture. Multifunctionality approach allows identifying and defining the management and structure process to achieve optimum outcomes and delivery benefits for public. The concept of GI approach is important in urban landscape planning. The goal of multifunctionality in urban landscape planning is to ensure management of gains from environment, social and economic development (Chadwick, 2013).

In the UK, National planning policy framework (NPPF) provides guideline, planning and policy context. NPPF elaborates multifunctional infrastructure is a network of urban and rural space which is capable of delivering economic and environment benefit for public to improve quality of life. NPPF endorse planning, protection, creation, management and enhancement of multifunctional urban landscape design and management.

On the other hand, in China, multifunctionality is recognised as part of urban landscape management and experiences from Europe and US is adopted to define n deploy the multifunctionality concept. However, multifunctionality context in China is limited to system plan and consider as statutory planning process in China (Swaffield and Primdahl, 2016).

1.3.2 Luzhou, Sichuan – Landscape management

Location of Luzhou

Figure 2: Location of Luzhou

Luzhou is city location in southeast part of China in Sichuan province (figure 1). It is industrial city and has built on Fengshui theory is useful to shape the cities in china through forming architecture characteristics. According to Yang (2005), Fengshui theory aims to create favourable conditions for people by investigating and integrating all aspect of natural environment and human needs. It is managed and administrative city. In recent years, Luzhou has gone through transition and implemented number of initiatives and actions to increase and improve open and green spaces. There are number of open spaces and parks and new residential building developed in the areas (figure 3) as well as area and mountains development (LI and XIE, 2008; GOU and LIU, 2013).

Luzhou development

Luzhou development plans include building open and green space, parks, recreational facilities and new residential blocks through number of new development. Local government invested in local infrastructure to promote healthy living and providing sustainable development opportunities.

Therefore, Luzhou experiences highlight the potential and issues in the management of the landscape and achieving higher quality through multifunctionality in the city (Shunhong, 2013).

1.3.3 Lancaster – Landscape management

Best Landscape management practices

Figure 4: Landscape management practices

Lancaster has diverse and long history dates back to 1192 with Lancaster castle situated in the centre of city. City has number of shopping malls, parks, rural and wood area and thus makes great combination of city, coastline and countryside experience. Local government manage the landscape in the city and city has implemented regeneration strategy in 1993. This involves developing number of parks, green spaces, residential blocks and open spaces. The landscape management in Lancaster has managed to deliver wider benefits for local communities and shifted from traditional to modern landscape management.

Local government has implemented multifunctionality strategy in 2010 to improve the quality of life and deliver multiple benefits for local communities. These experiences of landscape management provide opportunity to compare the factors and issues related to multifunctionality landscape management and develop knowledge for improvement in China (Cordingley et al., 2016).

1.4 Research aims and objectives

The aim of this research is to develop and improve understanding of landscape management multifunctionality in China through comparing potential and actual prospect of management practices in Luzhou (China) and Lancaster (UK). The goal is to develop knowledge inform better ways of management multifunctionality of infrastructure in China. The research objectives of this study are

  • To critically appraise the theoretical context of urban landscape design and management in multifunctionality notion.
  • To identify existing multifunctionality context in Luzhou and Lancaster to profile multifunctionality landscape practices.
  • To determine the factors of multifunctionality management plans in relations to degree it promotes effective urban landscape design and management.
  • To bridge the multifunctionality gaps in China through measure improve multifunctionality

1.4.1 Research approach

To achieve the research objectives of this study, research is managed into two categories which are theory and practices. The critical review of literature allows analysing and evaluating the landscapes policy and management. The notion of multifunctionality allows developing understanding occurring between two cities.

The research focuses on Luzhou and Lancaster to exam policies and plans in two cities and investigated how it promotes multifunctionality. The identification of planning factors allows bridging the gap and achieves measure which improves urban landscape multifunctionality.

The comparative approach allows sharing knowledge for improvement management in China through identification of differences and similarities to make urban landscape effective.

1.5 Structure of dissertation

The first chapter of study outline research aim and objectives, research context and background is elaborated. The second chapter of study enclosed detailed literature review and theoretical framework for multifunctionality and urban landscape management along with principles, policies and practices. The third chapter of study highlight research method used for this study and elaborate the research instruments. In addition, it provides detail explanation of how and why these methods suitable for this study.

The fourth chapter of study overview the cities and along data collection and analysis is presented. The secondary data collected through GIS approach allows evaluating multifunctionality approach in two cities. In addition, comparison of policies and management practices of urban landscape management is presented in this chapter. The fifth chapter of study enclosed the conclusion and recommendation for multifunctionality improvement in China.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter of study enclosed the literature review to analyse and evaluate the multifunctionality and urban landscape planning in the UK and China context. The literature is structured into four sections.

The section A of literature enclosed the principles and practices of urban design and landscape. The section B of study critique reviews the theories of urban landscape planning and implication in UK and China. The section C of study highlights degree of multifunctionality and its application in urban landscape planning. The section D of literature review the good international practices of multifunctionality along with review of implementation challenges associated with multifunctionality and urban landscape planning.

Section A: Principles and practices of urban design and landscape

2.2 Urban design

Larice and Macdonald (2013) stated that urban design has important role in forming cities and it has emerged to bridge the gap between design and planning to meet the modernisation need of cities. Urban design is considered as the extension of planning or subset of planning. The role of urban design in modern cities is critical in creating sustainable environment in urban cities.

Urban design is known as art of creating urban environment through meeting needs and interest of community managing cultural, social and economic outcomes. Therefore, urban design is concerned with designing and developing sustainable cities. Urban design facilitates development of ‘good cities’ which support the people needs.

Urban design elaborates physical design to support human behaviour as well as what city mean and how city looks. The objective of urban design is to ensure environment quality and sustainability in terms of connectivity, access, comfort and sense of place (Ritchie and Thomas, 2013).

2.3 Urban landscape

Urban landscape involves forming green and open spaces within urban environment. This includes structures and building to develop character, identity and sense of place through contributing to function and aesthetic. Urban landscape is dynamic and evolving concept and includes urban ecology. Urban landscape functions as connector and separator during the use of land. It is useful to act as buffer zone in conflicting areas and facilitate the needs of people through offering flexibility using land for multiple purposes (Ahern, 2013).

Urban landscape improves the visual quality of cityscape. The goal of urban landscape is to create sense of openness and built attractive places to balance the human impact in the cities and vertical effect of structures and building. Quality landscape practices minimise the impact of hard structures and building and improve the quality of life of people (Bandarin and Oers, 2014). The benefits of good urban design are summarised in the table below

benefits of good urban design

2.4 Urban landscape challenges

Cook and Lara (2013) highlighted that urban growth has changed the face of cities because of social disconnect, economic problems as well as environment problems. The problems such as population growth, industrialisation, land use, lack of affordable housing, living quality and cost, transportation, demand for living space, lack of planning as well as  nucleus family has resulted in urban challenges and sustainability problems.

For example, internal immigration acts as ‘pull factor’ for economic security as well as push factor for economic and social opportunities. Cities are perceived for better life and opportunities, which attract higher population. The environment challenges for landscape planning includes large neighbourhood, land use and regional density, lack of pedestrian friendly designs. The issues to address in urban cities are air quality, heat islands, water, river and streams, floodplains and wetlands (Berrizbeitia, 2015).

2.4 Empirical literature – Policy and practice context

urban landscape and multifuncitonality
urban landscape and multifuncitonality

 

2.5 Principles of urban landscape and planning making

Table 3: Principles of urban landscape and planning making

Factor

Description

In-depth planningMultifunctionality planning should be managed in advance and concurrently with built environment
Information managementDetail information should be collected for historical, social and ecological matters to support the development of multifunctional infrastructure.
Holistic perspectiveThe development should be managed at border level including Geographically: network and linked the structures; Functionally: the outcome should deliver multiple benefits for communities; Politically: create common vision through authorities working together
Linkage and collaborationIt is important to create link between people, features, natural resources and programmes
Stakeholders involvementLocal communities, internet and pressure groups and other stakeholders should involve ensuring the planning and development has degree of ownership.
Preservation and recreational opportunitiesIt is important to protect and create habitats as well as management of recreational opportunities.
Site distinctivenessThe planning should incorporate degree of identity as well as diversity to enhance and protect local environment.
Sustainable financial supportFunds should allocate at early stage and investment should be made with long-term perspective.

Source: (Zipperer et al., 2012; Ahern, Cilliers and Niemela, 2014)

Section B: Theories of urban landscape planning

2.5 Landscape design and planning

Tress, Decamps and d’Hauteserre (2001) stated that landscape design and planning indicates to the proficient and powerful design and planning of space, which incorporates both urban and countryside spaces. Design and planning of Landscape are likewise considered to assistance to upgrade biodiversity and reasonable improvement of infrastructure and preserve resources to improve the quality of life. The design and planning of Landscape is a complex, multi-faceted task, which is utilised to assurance an environmentally sustainable future for current and future generation (Ahern, Cilliers and Niemela, 2014).

Manageable issues emerge from challenges connected with incorporating people and their exercises into the structure, capacity and biology of the Landscape. It accomplishes various advantages from Landscape at various scales. Hence,multifunctional Landscape is figured out how to upgrade and accomplish numerous capacities Design and planning is more centred on quality and exercises from locales. Landscape design and planning has been influenced via Landscape changes, which include social, economic and political changes (De Groot et al., 2010).

2.6 Theoretical foundations

Chadwick (2013) elaborated the two fundamental approaches to landscape planning are procedural and substantive. Substantive theories elaborate landscape planning as prescriptive and descriptive approach. In substantive theory, landscape is better understand through interference of cultural and natural processes which articulate purpose and principles of sustainable landscape planning. The information exchange in substantive theories highlighted how planner organised and use the information. For instance, metapopulation and biogeography are examples of substantive planning approach for urban ecological landscape (Furlong et al., 2016). The importance of substantive theories is relevant to restoration and biodiversity conservation.

The criticism of substantive theory is made by ecologist because these theories fail to resolve biodiversity problems. In addition, examples of substantive planning are habitat theory, transactive and participative theory. Procedural theories allow implementing substantive theory and focusing on methodological foundation to conduct sustainability analysis, efficient resource allocation and ecological planning. Procedural theories are used as framework and guidelines for information management in landscape planning and i.e. overcome the landscape planning problems. Substantive theories are useful to inform and guide to elaborate operational procedures applied to landscape planning (Scott and Storper, 2015; Ndubisi, 2014).

2.7 Landscape design and planning – UK context

2.7.1 Ecological Planning Model (EPM)

Steiner (2000) proposed EPM model to address the urban landscape planning challenges through cultural goals and biotic management and focus on land allocation. The model is useful to integrate the socio-cultural system and biophysical systems of landscape management. The goal of model is to establish and implement landscape management through public involvement. The advantage of EPM is that model is highly adaptive and interactive to multiple strategies.

The model is useful to implement in environment and cultural context. The process and element involve in the model is elaborated using the layer-cake ordering.  Environment is related to two important concepts that are landscape and ecology. Ecology enclosed physical and biological environment whereas landscape enclosed the cultural and natural environment (Bagstad et al., 2013).

Environment planning involves knowledge for decision-making. The physical components are water, air, and nature as well as built environment. The layer-cake model integrates ecology and time to address geology characteristics. Ecological planning enclosed information on land-use and planners use information for geographic information system (GIS). Natural environment elaborates safety, human health, welfare to tackle natural, and environment challenges. Environment source highlight energy, minerals and building. The emergency plans enclosed plans to tackle issues such as hurricanes and earthquakes (Palmisano et al., 2016).

Layer-cake model
Layer-cake model

2.7.2 Application of EPM and Sustainable development

Urban landscape planning is managed through financial incentives, regulation and voluntary. Regulation involves control activities to minimise the environment damages. For example, industrial estates are subject to limits, standards, and failure to comply result in fines and close operations. Financial incentive involves providing funds and grants to conserve habitat conservation as well as incentive for energy conservation (Yigitcanlar and Teriman, 2015).

In addition, voluntary disclosures are encouraged through environmental education and protection activities. Environmental planning focuses on place making and it is important to prevent harmful actions and provide interventions for sustain developments. Landscape planning is focus to ensure that development meets the need of present generation as well as meet the need of future generations. The important variables in urban landscape planning are economics, equity, ethics and environment (Potschin and Haines-Young, 2013).

2.8 Landscape design and planning – Chinese context

2.8.1 Fengshui urban planning theory

Fengshui theory is useful to shape the cities in china through forming architecture characteristics. According to Yang (2005), Fengshui theory aims to create favourable conditions for people by investigating and integrating all aspect of natural environment and human needs. Theory rooted the need of co-existence between the human and nature co-existence.

Fengshui architecture is important for human and natural environment co-existence as well as ecological architecture between environment and human being. In modern theory, Fengshui enclosed systematic theory of through integrating geography, landscape and human informatics. Fengshui enclosed guidance and reference for urban landscape planning in modern China (Wu, 2015).

According to Wang (1992), architecture based on Fengshui culture and methodology allows choosing and developing site, planning, geographical, landscape and ecological research. Fengshui theory addresses the ecological and environment concerns. The functional effect of includes keeping wind-off, site drainages, irrigation and avoiding floods.

The shortcoming of Fengshui is that superstitious concept while evaluating the environment and ecological concepts. Critique argues that western developments are applicable to universal science and resulting forcing geomancy (art of arranging building) and arts is important to Chinese public (Richter and Weiland, 2011).

2.8.2 Fengshui and landscape development in China

The site selection in China is embedded in traditional pursuit of ecological concern and stated that location should recessed position. This give village sheltered and scheduled commanding view of distinct landscape. The natural environment should facilitate quality life and prosperity of people. The entire site location of Fengshui demonstrates ecological and human concerns. The capacity of boundary allows absorbing waste and inner settlement is depending upon hydraulic inertia.

Fengshui theory and development

Fengshui theory is a concern with natural landscape (as shown in diagram) (Mak and Ting-pat, 2009). The shortcoming of Fengshui theory, which needs to address, are water is considered as primary consideration whereas the wind is a secondary consideration. Fengshui theory ignored the modern concept of urban landscape planning which includes economic benefits and visibility increase economic value, save energy and enhances tourism. Moreover, theory fails to recognise the social human interaction for sense of security as well as recreational activities and promotes social cohesion (Ahern, Cilliers and Niemela, 2014)

2.9 Policy context and Urban Landscape planning

2.9.1 UK policies for Urban Landscape planning

In the UK, the landscape management is categorised into groups. The first is government policies and National Planning Policy framework (NPPF) and second is non-legislative principle based approach. The basis legislation for land use planning is Town and Country planning Act (1990) and it enclosed planning and development control along decision making responsibility. In 2004, planning and compulsory act provides local and regional development plan in the light of planning policy statement. The Act elaborates economic and environmental development criteria and defines clear chain of responsibility from regional to local planning needs (May, 2012).

In the UK at national level, planning policy guidance outlines national planning policies and landscape management aspect in the UK. In addition, policy guidance provides criteria for local authorities and development framework for urban landscape. In addition, National Planning Policy framework (NPPF) is a framework to make planning process simple and address the environment, economic and sustainability. In the UK, local department and government manage the planning process as well as non-departmental commission for Architecture and built environment (CABE) deliver sustainability of built environment (Flatman and Perring, 2013).

Figure 6: UK policy for Urban Landscape planning

2.9.2 Chinese policy for Urban Landscape planning

The urban landscape management in China is managed at three levels which are local, regional and national level. In China, Rural and Urban planning law of People republic of China provides planning and policy for landscape management. The numbers of departments manage the planning and developments are Urban-rural development, Ministry of housing and China national department. Urban-rural department and ministry of housing have responsibility for urban development in urban and rural development and deliver policy for landscape policy decision-making (Wu et al., 2013).

The policy and planning context in China is managed at provisional and national level which highlights statute of rules and regulation level highlighting national documents, administrative regulation and departmental regulations. The regional government develop local plans as well as ensure implementation of measure through spatial layouts and integrating economic and environment factors. At regional level, planning and landscape departments implement planning and policy-making (Zhou et al., 2014).

Departmental structure for landscape planning in China

Figure 7: Departmental structure for landscape planning in China

Section C: Multifunctionality – Landscape Design and planning

2.10 Multifunctionality theory of landscape

The multifunctionality is an important concept, which promotes the creativity for sustainable, ecological for effective design, and planning. Multifunctionality is known as concept, which involves the integration of various functions through same or overlapping land. In other words, multifunctionality is largely influenced and shaped based on the judgement and construction design knowledge and shaped up based on the human knowledge domain. Therefore, landscape is rather viewed from the city perspective based on the multifunctionality (Selman, 2009). The landscape institute in England elaborates the multifunctionality as an integral part of landscape design and planning based on the network of the various functions to deliver cumulative benefits. The important component, which ensures and promotes the multifunctionality at local and regional level, is based on the following variables. These are gateway for town, bridges for town, health centres, renewable and recycle centres, cultural legacy and productive landscape, regeneration and sustainable living and nature reserves for the city. Therefore, multifunctionality has a pivotal role in the landscape design, planning, and influence authority and policy makers (Ling, Handley and Rodwell, 2007).

Multifunctionality and landscape function

Figure 8: Multifunctionality and landscape function

2.11 Multifunctionality – Design and management

According to Gallant et al (2004), multifunctional landscapes are in spotlight with recent emergence of ‘green infrastructure’ through embedding planned network to manage the multifunctionality resources capable of delivering quality of life and ecological services for sustainability. According to Landscape institute (2009) multifunctionality enhances and multiple the functions significantly for the natural environment. The integration of green networks, places and habitats provide cumulative benefits. The concept of GI approach is important in urban landscape planning. The goal of multifunctionality in urban landscape planning is to ensure management of gains from environment, social and economic development (Gagne et al., 2015).

Hansen and Pauleit (2014) added that the co-existence of function delivers multi-functionality and promotes environmental, social and economic objectives through spatial planning and integration of activities. Multifunctionality urban landscape planning provides health and social benefit as well as promotes partnership among user group. This promotes liveability and multifunction value for urban landscape. Green infrastructure integrates biodiversity, health, containment, visual quality, water quality, land-value and tourism.  Urban landscape evolves ecological, symbolic and aesthetic characteristic of value system. The three integrated components are values, structure and functions (Frank and Hibbard, 2016).

According to Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (MEA), official UK government discourses highlight that ecosystem embraces following services. First are the provisions of water, timber and food. Second is regulating services such as waste, water quality and climate. Third is cultural services involves spiritual and aesthetic value. Finally, the support services such as soil formation and photosynthesis. The long-term human survival is critical to promote integrated and diverse natural system. In the context of multifunctionality, land is capable of fulfilling human needs and elements such as economic, socio-cultural and ecological promotes mutual benefits (Slotterback et al., 2016).

2.12 Empirical literature – Multifunctionality

Hansen and Pauleit (2014) elaborated that the empirical literature on multifunctionality highlights four distinctive capabilities, which are as follows. First, it involves interactivity rather colocation. For example, multifunctionality is integration of spatial functions, which improve economies, environment and social cohesion. Secondly, multifunctionality has synergistic effect on landscape through evolving social vibrancy, environment integrity and visual charm. Third, landscape management is integrative in terms of functions and services as well as time-depth of cultural association (Villnas et al., 2013).

Finally, multifunctionality is associated with reconnection of social-ecological perspective, which delivers quality life for public. The two important conditions linked with landscape is heterogeneity rather focusing homogeneity that is expressed through ecological opportunities, visual complexities and diversity. The second element is multifunctionality discussed in relation to spatial basis for analysis (Huang et al., 2015).

Multifunctionality and urban landscape planning is managed through policy delivery, data management and partnership coalitions. Multifunctionality is characterised using complexity and characteristic and planners have used system model for urban landscape planning. It is studied as multiplier and substitution effect to create forward and backward integration. Cultural landscape enclosed socio-ecological systems to create equilibrium and model is useful to understand intensity, feedback and direction for cultural landscape. The disequilibrium factors such as climate change and house development affect the systems.

The table below summarise the multifunctionality and green structure differences (Mastrangelo et al., 2014).

multifunctionality and green infrastrcuture

2.13 Benefits of Multifunctionality urban landscape planning

Urban landscape and urban matrix are integral part of urban design and planning in modern cities. The factors influencing urban design also affect the urban landscape. Urban design is influenced because of beliefs and values of designers. Urban landscape requires unique distinct design process and sustainable design requires understanding of urban design principles (Bandarin, 2014). The essential elements of urban design applications in urban cities are discussed below

2.13.1 Sustainability and adaptability

Urban landscape involves changing structure of urban realm and increasing urbanisation requires adaptability for sustainable development. Urban design adaptability requires appropriate design element that meet the need for community. Adaptability is important to achieve sustainability through integrating ecological sustainability and quality of life. Urban ecology is important to achieve adaptability to elaborate character and meaning (Childers et al., 2014).

Adaptability and sustainability is important to achieve lifetime while maintain space and time identity. The suitability analysis is useful for conducting landscape design and planning. The relationship between environment and natural values is important to determine true potential of effective planning. The urban ecology perspective in context of urban landscape are enclosed in table below (McPhearson et al., 2015)

urban ecology perspective in context of urban landscape

2.13.2 Legibility and coherence

Pazhouhanfar and Kamal (2014) analysed that legibility of urban landscape highlights the ease of place which coherent patterns is recognised between parts of cities. It involves sense of place to evoke belonging for people comfortable. The linkage between place and space is to elaborate experience and represent identity and character of place. Coherence defines how identity changes and transforms the image of city. Coherence is degree of consistency between components of landscape.

Legibility and coherence are strong linked with feeling of safety and understanding of place. The components associated with sense of place are physical environment, memories and connotations for social interaction linked with place. To conclude, legibility and coherence is associated with character, identity and sense of place. Urban landscape planning is useful to meaningful experiences and connectivity for social interaction (Frank et al., 2013).

2.13.3 Accessibility and community involvement

Accessibility in urban environment highlights how people with social, economic and cultural differences live together in urban communities. The spatial and social segregation is managed through sustainable community development. Urban landscape planning aims to create affordable and assessable environment to develop sustainable communities. Landscape planning allows preventing social fragmentation through providing space and places for member of public from different backgrounds and experiences (Collier et al., 2013).

Landscape planning helps to take account of disadvantage people and safety. Community involvement in design and planning is participation of public in urban projects. The knowledge and information of community inspired the designers and support needs of project. Therefore, community involvement is important part of design process. For example, solar energy can reduce the cost and rainwater can use for irrigations (Zlender and Thompson, 2016).

2.14 Degree of multifunctionality — UK and China context

Wratten et al (2013) added that multifunctionality landscape planning plays significant role to enhance the quality of life through promoting social and economic benefits for public. The rapid expansion of cities in the UK has present number of sustainability challenges for planners in the UK. In such context, it is important management of ecology and social needs are integrated for sustainability.

In the UK, numbers of practices are conducted to ensure multifunctionality and green infrastructures are promoted through sustainable urban planning. Multifunctionality landscape planning involves providing eco-friending housing in the cities, urban green space for the public and integrates social and ecological system to provide quality of life in cities (Breuste, Qureshi and Li, 2013).

For example, development of urban green space in the UK has contributed towards the social cohesion and health of people by reducing stress of modern life. The improved quality of life evolves education, visual image as well as reduces noise and pollution. The table below summarise the typologies for planning practices in the UK (Ellis, 2013; Ahern, 2013).

typologies of planning practices in the UK

Multifunctionality involves complex practices for urban landscape and integration of overlapping or same land units is difficult part of planning process. Multifunctionality has been influential in the UK and Europe through creative measure and protective resonance. However, multifunctionality has limited grounds outside the Europe. The table below summarise the multifunctionality practices in China (Peng et al., 2016).

typologies of planning practices in China

2.15 Application and practices of multifunctionality

The combination of multifunctionality landscape planning offer range of benefits achieved from same area and deliver sustainability locally and regionally. The benefits includes bridge town and cities, gateway to urban areas, health centre, cultural legacy and productive landscape and generation of natural reserve. Multifunctionality support both sustainable land use as well as development in the urban development. (Chadwick, 2013)

The network of multifunctionality contains green infrastructure such as eco-houses, woodlands and open urban areas within the cities. Benedict and Mcmahon (2007) added that interconnected green space includes conversation value, social and cultural benefits. The resource value and benefits refer to human as well as social benefit. In the UK, green infrastructure as part of multifunctionality landscape planning to support life system, natural environment as well as blue and green spaces to offers economic, social and environmental benefits (Nibedita, Koedam and Dahdouh-Guebas, 2012).

The physical components of green infrastructure in the UK includes health and grassland, sport facilities, churches and cemeteries, private green, allotments, gardens, wildlife habitat, parks and open space. Multifunctionality is useful framework for future land and growth to conserve land and preserve natural resources and assets. (Breuste, Qureshi and Li, 2013)

Section D: Multifunctionality international good practices and implementation barriers

2.16 International good practices

Spohr (2012) stated that multifunctionality urban landscape planning in cities represents two domains. First, cities allow integrating the level of information related sites and stakeholders through decision-making at the regional level.  Secondly, depend on the natural landscape and it is important to preserve ecological assets. Cities are influential institutions because they are the engine of economic growth and provide accommodation to the majority of population.

Therefore, cities consumer most of energy and resource and generate harmful emissions. Green infrastructure as part of multifunctionality has significant role to develop sustainable cities, which address social, economic and cultural challenges in cities. (Sinnett, Smith and Burgess, 2015) The examples of good urban planning and multifunctionality are discussed below

2.16.1 Barcelona, Spain

Barcelona has created new vision of multifunctionality infrastructure and city is leader of urban regeneration in Europe. The city is commitment to develop holistic and sustainable view for social, economic and environment benefits of public. The pedestrian plans helped the people and 37% of trips in city are taken by foot. Urban planning department has introduced solar thermal plans to use the solar energy to 60% of householder energy needs.

The range of programs introduced in the city is pedestrian scheme, vehicle control access, cycle lanes, buses and improved metro system, intercity rail services, park and ride scheme, new noise reduce roads, tramway, recycling initiatives, sewerage and waste management program and development of park on old industrial state  (Baro et al., 2014).

2.16.2 Vancouver, Canada

Vancouver has sea and mountains with beautiful nature but present urban city challenges. City has implemented 100 years sustainability plan, which include use of solar and wind energy. City has 200 parks using the waterfronts as well as started number of program to reduce waste and recycle. Urban planning has introduced sustainability plans through introducing 100% from renewable sources and 80% emission reduction by 2050.

The changes faced by city includes seawater rise, heat waves, increase rainfall and storm has presented new challenges. Adaptation strategy of city is to implement program for resilient and liveable program. The range of programs includes eco-infrastructure, greenspace, parks and climate change (Weiss, 2016).

canada - urban planning factors

2.16.3 Malmo, Sweden

Sweden is ranked as third sustainable city in the world and known for its green space and extensive parks. City has implemented number of programs to transform innovative planning and design to make city environmentally, socially and economically sustainable. The sustainable program implemented ‘ekostaden’ to develop sustainable neighbourhood and region.

In residential area, stormwater is managed through canals and dams to manage flood problem. The number of programs includes solar energy, transport and waste sorting. Sustainable urban development purpose is ecological improvement and meets social needs. City has implement number of programs such as renewable energy, green spaces, flood management program as well as participation of public for eco-friendly initiatives. (Fitzgerald, 2016)

2.17 Implementation barriers of sustainable urban landscape planning

The urban landscape planning is subject to challenges and barriers in order to implement landscape plans. Irrespective of model selected, the two important problems are adaptability and uncertainty. The multiple planning approach inherent uncertainty in form of principles related to spatial planning, geographical problems, human input and process problems. The planning model helps to reduce uncertainty through replication as well as use of data to develop multiple hypotheses and monitoring.

The adaptive planning approach is useful to reduce uncertainty through using learn by doing approach but integrated into planning. The attractiveness of cities and quality of life is given least important during decision-making and human being explicit excludes during the planning. The relationship between human and cities is ignored in terms of values, relationship and experiences of people (Forman, 2014).

Urban development is needed to integrate physical environment and human experiences to make pleasant and ecological sustainable cities. Environment and architecture quality, trust, safety requires social and cultural benefits. Technological breakthrough requires sustainable strategies careful review (Chadwick, 2013).

Realisation of technology to ensure smart energy use and technical system has positive association for sustainable development. For example, in Sweden imported electronic goods account for 60% of carbon emission. The spatial division in the cities has resulted in lower harmony as lack of public of involvement in development of city has prevented knowledge building. In network society, there is greater need of dialogue from public on urban planning projects (Moss and Marvin, 2016). The implementation barriers include

  • Lack of economic incentives and social norms
  • Inconsistent messaging and lack of unified leadership
  • Lack of education and public involvement
  • Lack of consensus and insufficient regulation and enforcement

Chapter 3: Research Methodologies

This chapter of study elaborates the research methodology used to achieve the objectives of the research. The success of research depends on upon the design of research and it plays important in the achievement of the objective of the research. To achieve the objective of this research, the qualitative approach is used. The qualitative research design is useful to explore the landscape management policy and management practices along with document analysis.

The research strategy for this study is comparative case studies to explore the multifunctionality and landscape management practices in two cities. Moreover, the research is based on secondary data only and not primary data is collected. The secondary data used in this study including journal articles, official publication and GIS mapping which allows to analyse and evaluate the landscape management practices (Maxwell, 2012).

3.1 Comparative research

Esser and Hanitzsch (2013) stated that comparative research is useful to manage and conduct the comparison through analysing and description. It allows highlighting similarities and contrast through focusing on the cases and concept formulation. Comparative research in conjunction with inductive approach develops new theories and models and propose new hypothesis and in the UK and China context through explanation of the differences and similarities and explanation of multiple events. The purpose of the comparative research is useful to analyse the situation and scenario in wider context and meet the need of research in wider context. (Yanow, 2014)

For this study, comparative research design is useful to develop and improve understanding of landscape management multifunctionality knowledge through comparing potential and actual prospect of management practices in Luzhou (China) and Lancaster (UK). Comparative research is useful to manage knowledge inform better ways of management multifunctionality to achieve the objective of this research. The comparison allows identifying and understands the multifunctionality knowledge through elaborating similarities and differences of management practices.

3.2 Research design

3.2.1 Qualitative research

According to Creswell (2011), qualitative research allows developing an understanding of social scenario and unable the researcher to understand the problem and derive results from a social problem. It is useful when the researcher cannot separate itself from the situation and therefore, the flexibility offered by qualitative research allows developing meaning through evaluating the variables.

Qualitative research is useful as it allows developing meaning through exploring theories and concepts get the insight of problem through the wider perspective of the problem. Qualitative research design is useful because it offers flexibility to explain the variation and explore the relationship between the variables. The researcher can adjust the research process as new information emerges (Stebbins, 2011).

3.2.2 Quantitative research

Hair et al (2011) stated that quantitative research involves analytical approach and rigid framework to evaluate the problem. It is useful to confirm the hypothesis and rigid structure allows to examine the relationship between the variables through quantification of variables.

In quantitative research, numerical data is used and researcher does not influence the process of research. The quantification of variables allows to confirm the hypothesis and offers insight on meaning and characteristic of the problem through analysing and summarising large volume of data. The analytic approach is useful to generalise the results from larger population and rigid structure evaluate the problem in wider context (Bernard, 2012).

3.2.3 Suitability of qualitative research for this study

The qualitative research design is useful because elusive nature of dataset and problem nature associated with this research. The time and resource constraint represent the difficulty in accessing wider range of data and confirming the results. The research question is to evaluate the multifunctionality urban design landscape and planning making factors during the development of city and qualitative research offers flexibility to analyse the data from a wider context and compare the management practices between the two cities.

The benefit of the qualitative approach to achieve the research objective is that researcher can analyse a wide range of data in short time within available resources of secondary data.

The systematic approach and flexibility offered allow summarising the data and presenting the comparative results to identify the gap and proposed the improvement in Chinese multifunctionality context. The generalisation of finding from large secondary data is useful to validate findings (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009).

3.3 Research strategy – Comparative Case studies

According to Yin (2013) cases studies allows answering the why and how questions through evaluating the large volume of data on existing phenomenon. The usefulness of case study is that researcher can analyse different sources of data without influencing the social scenario and generalise the results through analysing multiple sources of data.

Case studies are useful to investigate topic which is difficult to manage through other methods. Case studies allow investigating the problems which are descriptive in nature (what happen) or explain the scenario (how it happens) (Blatter and Haverland, 2012).

The holistic perspective offered by case studies enables the problem analysis from multiple contexts and validate the finding which makes results reliable and compelling. The strength of case study it allows studying contemporary phenomena trough studying real life problem by developing holistic perspective. The multiple sources of data can effectively analyse when boundaries of the problem are blurred and provide the descriptive account of the problem (Stake, 2013).

3.3.1 Usefulness of case study for this study

Yin (2013) stated three conditions to determine the suitability of case study for this study. The first is the type of research question; the second is control and role of researcher and third is a degree of a contemporary event. For this study, the research aim is to develop an understanding of how multifunctionality landscape management practices are managed between the Luzhou and Lancaster.

The researcher attempts to explore the problem through analysing the qualitative secondary data. Therefore, the research question is better answered by using case studies. Moreover, to explore the landscape management and multifunctionality practices researcher has no control of the situation and i.e. case studies are useful to analyse the planning variables and factors.

The third factors are that study aim is to develop and improve understanding of landscape management multifunctionality in China through comparing potential and actual prospect of management practices and case study approach is useful to overcome the inconsistencies and data evaluation is managed is the light of literature review (Drummond and Embree, 2013).

Comparative case studies are useful to study the actual scenarios and potential prospects on multifunctionality landscape management. The strength of comparative study is that it strength the finding through generalisation of data from multiple sources and present findings. For this research, comparative case study allows to analyse and compare the multifunctionality landscape management processes of selected cases.

The aim of this research is to develop and improve understanding of landscape management multifunctionality in China. Multiple case studies approach is useful to treat each case individually and present each case individually to conduct cross-case comparison.  (Silverman, 2010).

3.3.2 Inductive and deductive reasoning

Crossman (2013) stated that inductive reasoning is useful to develop and propose theory building through analysing multiple sources of secondary data. It enables the researcher to investigate multiple sources of qualitative secondary data to narrow down the problem by generalisation of findings. On the other hand, deductive approach is used to test the theory for confirmation of hypothesis and validate the finding of study.

Deductive approach evolves from particular situation to general scenario through testing the relationship using analytical data. For this study, inductive approach is used to develop and improve understanding of landscape management multifunctionality in China through comparing potential and actual prospect of management practices in Luzhou (China) and Lancaster (UK). The inductive approach allows analysing the multifunctionality and landscape management through analysing wide range of qualitative secondary and present consolidated finding of multifunctionality practices for landscape management (Schechter, 2013).

3.4 Data collection and analysis

3.4.1 Primary vs. secondary data

Primary data is data which is collected to answer the research question and does not exist already. Primary data is collected by researcher specific to context of problem to answer the question of study. On the other hand, secondary data is a data already exist in form of official publication, journals and reports. Secondary data involves the collection of information through interpreting and evaluating data which is suitable to achieve the objectives of study (Cox et al., 2011).

The secondary data analysis is core of the exploratory studies and advantage is that it is cost effective and ensures timely completion of project. Secondary data analysis is useful to answer the research question which is different from original research questions because secondary data offer valuable insight and researcher can develop in-depth perspective of problem. Qualitative secondary data analysis is useful to analyse the problem and wider theory perspective from existing data. (Sapsford and Jupp, 2006)

3.5 Qualitative secondary data analysis

Goldkuhl (2012) stated that qualitative secondary data analysis is useful to search new information and interpretation the information related to new research objectives. Secondary data is information gather for other purposes and takes minimum time to answer the research question. Moreover, secondary data analysis is useful to explore the information to address the research problem which is different from the original research and researcher offers narrative through elaborating valuable data set.

Secondary data analysis is cost-effective way of answering research problem through analysing theory and finding of multiple case studies in order to generate synthesis and consolidate the finding of multiple secondary data sources. Nevertheless, Mills, Bonner and Francis (2006) stated that in qualitative secondary research there is need to balance the  data to achieve the research is essential and data set should be balanced (Stebbins, 2011).

3.5.1 Document analysis

Document analysis allows to analyse the exisitng information and data sources and information exist independent of exisiting study. The action of researcher does not effect the quality or relaibility of data and secondary sources of data incldues articles, books and case studies. This allows the researcher to develop better perspective of problem by combining multiple seondary data sources to develop holisitc perspective.

The usefulness of document analysis is that researcher analyse problem in cost effective and timely manner to answer the specific problem. The document analysis offers an insight on the outcomes and actions for the specific problems. Document analysis offers opportunity to collect information from wider perspective in cost effective and unbiased manner (Bowen, 2009).

3.5.2 GIS mapping

Kienast et al (2012) added that Geographic information system (GIS) is computer tool which allows analysing, collect and retrieve information and spatial data. The usefulness of GIS is that it allows collecting and analysing large data and their relationships. For this study, GIS mapping is useful to establish the coincidence and distribution of landscape function. It is useful to create economic, social and environmental aspects of multifunctionality.

GIS mapping is useful to develop understanding of opportunities and context of landscape management through understanding layers of spatial data. In addition, adaptive approach is useful to analyse secondary data and thus, GIS is relevant to aims of this study. GIS approach is useful to investigate two aspects. The first aspect is that it allows exploring the relationship between landscape management policies and second is examine the impact of natural conditions and environment impact (Maantay and Ziegler, 2006).

3.6 Sampling

Brace (2013) stated that sampling is a process of selecting the sample which represents the large population. It is difficult to collect data from population and thus, sampling allows representing the whole population and validates the finding. To answer the research question, it is important to select relevant population for the given problem.

For this research, quota population is used to decide the study design and characteristic of the population. The selection approach gives flexibility in order to choose the multifunctionality landscape management to gain insight into the research problem (Connaway and Powell, 2010).  The data collected for the study is available on the public websites and free GIS software for both cities.

3.7 Limitation of this research

This research has four major limitations which restrict the scope of study. The beforehand shortcoming of this research is that it involves qualitative data only rather evaluating the quantitative impact of multifunctionality for social and economic benefits. Moreover, time and size of the report is another limitation attached to this study has allowed exploring fewer planning factors and variables which have to restrict the wider perspective of integration of international best practices in the comparison.

Therefore, the research finding is limited to a comparison of the UK and China only. Moreover, the third limitation is research is based on secondary data only and planning and policy data is not available in depth and thus primary data is collected through conducting interviews might highlight different perspective.

Moreover, the limitation of secondary data is collected for other purpose and no answers the specific research problems. Moreover, the study is exploratory in nature to evaluate the variables and analyse changes in variables rather confirm explanatory approach.

3.8 Ethical consideration

The ethical issues related to qualitative secondary data research is confidentiality and fidelity. However, the element of informed consent is not related to secondary data research nor informed is required. In secondary data research, it is important that researcher ensures that data re-use does not violate the agreement of original researcher and participants. Moreover, ethical issues occur when making a comparison for previous studies to answer the research question. Therefore, it is important that researcher keeps confidentiality and do not breach the privacy of information (Bryman, 2015).

The basic principles and standards are important and researcher interprets the information without personal bias and distortion and avoids inappropriate behaviour. Moreover, it is important that researcher ensures that personal information is not collected as well as material should not subject to personal bias. For this study, no personal information or consent issue are attached. Moreover, researcher uses multiple sources of information to avoid imbalance and conflict of interest (Berger, 2015).

Chapter4.0:  Analysis and discussion

4.1 Case studies

This chapter enclosed the data analysis and finding to develop an understanding of landscape management multifunctionality in China through comparing potential and actual prospect of management practices in Luzhou (China) and Lancaster (UK).

The basis for selecting the two cities which are Luzhou and Lancaster is based on three common points which are two is medium size cities in context of size and population. Moreover, cities historic context and landscape have similar background as well as cultural and social context of two cities.

4.2 Triangulation

Triangulation is a useful technique which enables the researcher to elaborate and evaluate the research problem using the multiple approaches and increase confidence, reliability and validity of the research. It is particularly useful for social science research and triangulation increase the confidence of study. The advantage of triangulation is that it allows studying multiple variables and events to analyse and confirm the proposition to reduce uncertainty and consequently increase the confidence in the finding of the study.

Triangulation allows analysing multiple secondary sources of data and examines the multifunctionality and landscape management practices in the selected cities. The complex environment and multiple sources of information associated with multifunctionality reduce the error possibilities and strength the validity of the research.

Moreover, triangulation validates the finding and ensures the completeness of research by overcoming the error and biases of the researcher by a generalisation of the result of various data sources. Therefore, for this research triangulation increase the validity and reliability of results through analysing multiple sources of secondary data and case studies.

4.3 Luzhou

Luzhou also known as Wine city is medium size city located in the north-west of China in Sichuan province along the river as show in the diagram below. Luzhou has long history of development and city was developed under Fengshui theory of landscape management. The city has diverse landscape with river and mountains and become important component of Chinese economy. City has agriculture, manufacture and materials and has transformed completely in recent through development of multiple landscape in the city.

Luzhou

Figure 9: Location map of Luzhou

Larice and Macdonald (2013) stated that urban design has important role in forming cities and it has emerged to bridge the gap between design and planning to meet the modernisation need of cities. Figure 10 below shows the development plan of the city in terms of green spaces and facilities policies. The city has 7 meter of green space person and coverage rate of 35% which is common measure in Chinese cities. Moreover, Luzhou has number of parks, sport facilities, historical building, residential and industrial building and green spaces and national parks and bay.  Local government has recently planned landscape management plan to improve quality of life through providing green spaces and amenities in the urban area. The landscape management proposal to manage the both urban and agriculture lands in the city.

Development map of Luzhou

Development map of Luzhou

4.3.1 Landscape management context of Luzhou

Tietenberg and Lewis (2016) quality landscape practices minimise the impact of hard structures and building and improve the quality of life of people. Figure 11 below shows the landscape and land use map of the city and to accurately represent the information a slightly different typology is used in the context of Luzhou is used. The map allows understanding the relationship of human activities with natural resources. In the sub-urban of Luzhou agriculture land existing where residential areas are located along the river and in the inner areas of city. The residential land in larger along the river when compared with mountains where agriculture is managed.

Therefore, city produces agriculture products for economic benefits. The map shows that the residential use of land on both side of river along with green spaces and agriculture land in Luzhou.

Landscape management context of Luzhou

Figure 11: Landscape management context of Luzhou

The map shows the natural area along side of the river play significant role and city has large mountain plateau area is under developed and largely used for the agriculture purposes. Moreover, the map also shows that city has fewer urban parks and face ecological problems. The development is largely located in the inner urban area of the city and residential blocks have lesser green spaces. The map shows dense residential area on the bank of river and number of roads and railways links across the city (Sichuan City Government, 2014).

Luzhou has significant natural area and mountains in the country side which include woodlands, mountains and agriculture but has remained under developed. The map shows that in Luzhou large number of residential block and industrial areas is condensed along the river with fewer parks, urban green spaces, civic spaces and outdoor facilities in the city. In the city are relatively less developed green spaces and there is gap of good accessibility and high density of population. This represents accessibility and urban space problems in the residential areas.

The table below summarise the result of facilities and green spaces available in the inner city. Figure 12 below summarised the availability of facilities for local public (Luzhou landscape department, 2011).

Figure 12: facilities and green spaces available

4.3.2 Multifunctionality perspective and outcome in Luzhou

Lovell and Taylor (2013) stated that multifunctionality elaborates the distribution and abundance of natural resources and features of landscape for improved quality of life and achieves sustainable development. Luzhou has developed number of parks and sport facilities for community development and welfare and improve quality of life. Local government is focused on developing new facilities and urban green spaces to inspire the local community and improve the social perspective through providing health and well-being opportunities.

This has reduced the pressure on the dense populated areas of city and helps the eco-system such as providing green spaces along the river. The development of parks is effort of government to increase the bio-diversity and improve the environment factors such air quality and reduce the pollution. The conservation of landscape involves managing cultural landscape and historical character of city. The local government has provided wide range of park and facilities for the public recreation and preserve the cultural heritage.

Landscape Institute (2009) added that multifunctionality involves network of multi-facets prospects including rural and urban spaces and make it capable of providing wide economic and environment benefits for local communities through better life benefits. However, city does not have greener initiatives such as transport and pollution reduction in the city. The lack of planning for flood management as well as less attention is given to green infrastructure.

The lack of effective adaptive planning system has result in fewer benefits for social and economic system. The recent transformation in Luzhou is aim to provide recreational resources for environment and social benefits. The objective of city is to improve facilities and provide recreational opportunities for local communities. The development local parks and sport facilities have been useful source of health and safety of site and resolve conflict among the urban landscape management. The environment challenges for landscape planning includes large neighbourhood, land use and regional density, lack of pedestrian friendly designs.

Ahern (2013) added that structures and building to develop character, identity and sense of place through contributing to function and aesthetic. The urban services and ecosystems in the city to increase the wildlife and value of park by developing sustainability policies are lesser evident and fewer efforts are made to balance the environment and sustainability of system is made. The local government has no plan to manage the biodiversity as well as waste material, recycling and energy saving.

There is gap to manage the horticulture landscape as well as landscape character. For local economy in Luzhou eco-housing and urban green spaces provide economic benefits. The property prices and community involvement has attracted tourist and attract investment to provide job opportunities. The aim of the transformation was to provide economic and social benefits through parking bays, sport facilities (scenic), medical college, historical building (Panoramio) and new roads has provided opportunities for economic growth in the city. The infrastructure improvement has become source of income generation but these developments have not addressed the eco-system issues.

4.3.3 Implementation barriers of sustainable urban landscape planning

Huang et al (2015) stated that multifunctionality and urban landscape planning is managed through policy delivery, data management and partnership coalitions. In Luzhou, local planning and landscape department manages the urban areas and responsible for the maintenance. The land resources department manage the countryside as well as forest department manage the agriculture land. The scenic interest as well as historic context in the city allows managing the cultural heritage of city.

Landscape management responsibility

The figure shows the responsibility hierarchy in Luzhou. It is evident that during planning number of departments are involved in the planning system. The role of departments is to implement city and national policies for landscape principles and regulations.

Landscape management responsibility

In Luzhou, landscape department plays an important role to manage urban landscape in collaboration with other departments and responsibilities overlap. There are fewer partnerships and local government is responsible for management process. The policy context for local government is promulgation of regional documents. The social norm and lack of public involvement to implement the plans represent implementation challenges of multifunctionality landscape management.

4.4 Lancaster

Lancaster is metropolitan city located in North West of England and managed by the Lancaster city council. Moreover, the population of the town is nearly 1.5 million and area of 1190 square miles. Lancaster has diverse geographic with hills and river and city is built around river and hillside which view of countryside and city centre. The geographic context of Lancaster is similar to Luzhou in terms of river and mountain hills. Figure 11 below enclosed the location map of city along with constituents of the city.

Map of Lancaster - Urban planning assignment

Figure 14: Map of Lancaster

Lancaster has diverse landscape which include urban city centre, city to its hills as well as built housing along river and hills. It is one of the greenest cities in the UK with parks, public gardens, woodlands, eco-houses as well as hotel and facilities built along the river to promote the nightlife. The famous parks in the town include Williamson Park, Lancaster castle, Lancaster priory and city Museum.

4.4.1 Landscape management context of Lancaster

Pazhouhanfar and Kamal (2014) analysed that legibility of urban landscape highlights the ease of place which coherent patterns is recognised between parts of cities. Figure 15 below shows the land use in the Lancaster which included both enclosed and unenclosed land around the urban area of city. The map shows the industrial area, woodland, residential density and green spaces in the city. Land use map is useful to understand the distribution of resources and relevant to explain the green infrastructure typologies. The map shows the green spaces and built up areas in the city and sub-urban areas.

Landscape management context of Lancaster

 

Figure 15: Landscape management context of Lancaster

In Lancaster, a strategy to manage the green urban space and network allows to protect the green belt and protect the natural environment and resources of city. Hansen and Pauleit (2014) added that the co-existence of function delivers multi-functionality and promotes environmental, social and economic objectives through spatial planning and integration of activities. Figure 15 shows the natural as well as semi-natural areas of the city. The agriculture is major part of the city green spaces and value source of biodiversity for the city. Moreover, city has number of outdoor sport facilities as well as number of gardens and parks in the city. The chart below shows the land use for the green spaces and facilities in the Lancaster.

green spaces and facilities in the Lancaster

Figure 16: green spaces and facilities in the Lancaster

The mapping of urban landscape management shows typologies for the city. Tis include parks and gardens (urban and formal), green spaces (housing greenspace, gardens and urban common) and others (pedestrian paths, river and canal, farms and churchyards). The map enclosed information related to existing network.

O’Farrell and Anderson (2010) added that landscape design promotes interconnected network for features and areas of private and public conservation land. It compromise environment resources and contribute for sustainable resource management and natural life support system. This depicts that green infrastructure include ecological sites, rivers, canals, parks, open green spaces and agriculture land.

Landscape management lancaster

Figure 17: Landscape management

In Lancaster, parks and countryside service is responsible for recreational and parks maintenance in the whole city. Moreover, local government supervise management of green spaces, landscapes and gardens and playgrounds through stakeholders’ engagement and external consultancy services.

Bagstad et al (2013) added that ecology enclosed physical and biological environment whereas landscape enclosed the cultural and natural environment. The countryside and environment section manage the community activities through partnerships and volunteers and ecological unit advice on ecological service in the city. The environment section, woodland team as well as community partnership deliver policy and project selection and manage the communication and service plans.

The planning is managed through partners and agencies to deliver project and programs which meet the need of quality landscape for the city. Lancaster city council manages open and green space strategy as well as landscape assessment character to ensure green and open spaces to deliver exceptional quality standard and meet the social and environment needs of future generation.

4.4.2 Multifunctionality perspective and outcome in Lancaster

Breuste, Qureshi and Li (2013) multifunctionality landscape planning involves providing eco-friending housing in the cities, urban green space for the public and integrates social and ecological system to provide quality of life in cities. The management process in Lancaster involves historical parks (Regent and Williamsons) as well as social services such as swimming pools provide social benefits and community development through on-going liaison with stakeholders.

The land conservation and landscape planning enclosed the historical and sense of place to highlight elements and characteristic of local landscape. Moreover, city council proactive plan and manage the Morecombe bay  to deliver economic, environment and social benefits for local community (figure 18).

Morecambe bay map

Figure 18: Morecambe bay

The recent development plan has transformed a number of parks and facilities provide various recreation programs for the public. Williamson and Regent parks along with Salt Ayre leisure centre encourage the public to use the park and recreational facilities. To promote ecosystem, the focus is on wildlife through balancing environment impact and support sustainable resources. The environment planning involves includes a number of programs to preserve habitats, waste material and water consumption. The social program of the city includes management of recreation resources.

The recent development and planning have delivered economic benefits through promoting tourism and sense of place to improve asset base. Lancaster museum, tennis court, leisure centre and development along the river have encouraged economic growth. Community involvement through providing attractive and safe space for recreational activities provides social and economic benefits and maintains landscape character (Lancaster city council, 2016).

4.5 Comparison of multifunctionality – Luzhou and Lancaster

In both cities, the context of urban landscape management and multifunctionality is different and urban landscape design is managed through different approaches. The results show that Lancaster has larger urban green spaces when compared with Luzhou. Nevertheless, accessible green spaces are higher in Luzhou but outdoor facilities are higher in the Lancaster. In Luzhou, many green spaces are private are private property and not open to the public which reduces the effectiveness of the distribution of resources. The figure 19 compares the facilities and amenities in the two cities.

Figure 19: Facilities and Amenities

Figure 19 shows the land use in terms of sports facilities, park and gardens and other services available in the Luzhou and Lancaster which is relative higher in the UK. The information and authorities have managed the landscape design in different context and land use in the UK is relatively diverse. The urban design in Lancaster is design to provide social and environment benefits. The development of sites supports ecosystems and infrastructure is important for pedestrian and cycling.  In Luzhou, planning and management are overlapping for landscape and infrastructure is important. In Lancaster, the aim of landscape design and management is based on achieving multiple benefits to deliver social, economic and ecological development for sustainability. Lancaster planning for multifunctionality involves delivering multiple benefits by connecting biodiversity, energy, recycle and water management.

The planning approach in Luzhou and Lancaster has different understanding and recognition is different to promote multiple benefits from landscape function. In Luzhou, parks and gardens are developed but less attention is given to biodiversity and ecology.  In the UK, cultural background, economic impact and ecology have greater importance in landscape management. The context of multifunctionality in Lancaster is that multiple types of facilities design to deliver multiple benefits and services.

On the other hand, Luzhou has fewer structures exist in the city and less emphasis on multifunctionality. In Lancaster urban landscape strategy allows developing the structure to deliver multiple benefits for the community. The development of facilities and urban green spaces provided social and economic benefits. Luzhou landscape department manage urban design and management whereas other department forest and agriculture various aspect of landscape policies, strategies and principles.

The planning and development approach in Lancaster is collaborative efforts and spatial linkage as well as cross-cultural department delivers for landscape management. On the other hand, Luzhou less collaborative approach is taken and departments work independent to each other without interferences. The findings highlight that urban landscape management allows to tackle number of issues such as reduces pollution and improves air quality to promote sustainable development.

In the UK, multifunctionality practices and landscape design propose rich experience and deliver holistic perspective. The infrastructure development involves interaction of urban and rural connectivity at large scale.

Chapter 5.0: Conclusion

The aim of this research is to develop and improve understanding of landscape management multifunctionality in China through comparing potential and actual prospect of management practices in Luzhou (China) and Lancaster (UK).

The study focuses on a practical aspect of multifunctionality and landscape management and explores the real-life practices rather theoretical emphasis. The comparative approach has provided two-folded benefits for this study to identify and elaborate the management practices within each city and making the comparison to identify the best practice and to develop knowledge inform better ways of management multifunctionality of infrastructure in China.

The qualitative research design is useful to explore the landscape management policy and management practices along with document analysis. The research strategy for this study is comparative case studies to explore the multifunctionality and landscape management practices in two cities. The literature and finding of study have allowed understanding landscape management in the context of multifunctionality.

The best practices in two cities highlight that multifunctionality involves connecting people in urban and rural areas as well as bring together economic, ecological and social benefits for local communities.

The concept of multifunctionality is the core of effective landscape design and management applied to all dimensions including natural and semi-natural spaces to improve environment and quality of life at different levels to link the relationship between the people requirement and development of infrastructure.

The multifunctionality management involves planning and policy at the initial stage to achieve the long-term multifunctional vision. The planning and delivery of multifunctionality rely on initial planning and aligning resources to generate multiple benefits for the people. The comparative approach has allowed developing an understanding of landscape management in Lancaster and Luzhou.

The analysis showed that Lancaster has a number of infrastructures to provide social, economic and environment benefits through developing high-quality accessibility. The social benefits involve recreation opportunity for the environment and health benefits and impact on business through attracting tourist as well as preserve the biodiversity for the city. On the other hand, Luzhou is historical city and develop in light of Fengshui theory which highlight natural environment should facilitate quality life and prosperity of people through ecological and human concerns.

However, findings highlight that planning and infrastructure in Luzhou have deficiencies to provide multiple benefits for local communities. The development and types of urban spaces have distribution gaps as well as lack ecological perspective.

The comparative approach highlighted that Luzhou less collaborative approach is taken and departments work independently to each other without interferences. The findings highlight that urban landscape management allows tackling a number of issues such as reduces pollution and improves air quality to promote sustainable development.

In Lancaster, multifunctionality practices and landscape design propose rich experience and deliver holistic perspective. In Luzhou, number of initiative and plans implemented to transform the city through development. Multifunctionality involves quantity and quality of infrastructure and in Luzhou emphasis is improving quantity of structure rather achieving multifunctionality.

The finding and discussion have highlighted opportunities and factors for multifunctionality and landscape management in two cities. In Lancaster, multifunctionality is viewed with holistic perspective through connecting urban and rural landscape. The social benefits involve recreation opportunity for the environment and health benefits and impact on business through attracting tourist as well as preserve the biodiversity for the city.

The planning involved interaction with stakeholders, ecology management and biodiversity in the city. The focus is to deliver multiple benefits from the green infrastructure for the local communities.

On the other hand, multifunctionality is relative less popular and focus on social and economic rather ecological and cultural perspective. The social aspect involves visual landscape and developing parks as well as physical infrastructure context is limited to road works and agriculture. Luzhou should consult and collaborate with local communities during planning to integrate multifunctionality and achieve economic, social and ecological benefits from development.

To conclude, the research has achieved scope and its objectives. The literature review has allowed achieving the first objective of research through appraising the theoretical context of urban landscape design and management of multifunctionality notion.

The case studies have allowed to identify existing multifunctionality context in Luzhou and Lancaster to profile multifunctionality landscape practices and thus contributed two second objective of the research. Moreover, analysis and evaluation of factors and experiences allow understanding the factors of multifunctionality management plans in relations to the degree it promotes effective urban landscape design and management.

The comparison of multifunctionality and landscape management has allowed to understand management practices to bridge the multifunctionality gaps in China through measure improve multifunctionality.

5.1 Strength and limitation of research

The study has both strength and weakness. The strength of study is that it offers in-depth and detail insight on multifunctionality and landscape management in Lancaster and Luzhou as well as conduct comparison to understand the best practices and improve multifunctionality knowledge in the Chinese context.

The study proposes opportunities to improve landscape and multifunctionality to deliver social, economic and environment from infrastructure through long-term vision. Moreover, the study provides foundation for further analysis of multifunctionality practices in China through addressing the management practices and implement international best practices. On the other hand, there are limitations which affect the outcome of this study.

The research is based on secondary data only and no primary data is collected because of time and resource constraints. The collection primary would have the strength the multifunctionality practices, particularly in China. Moreover, the second limitation is the availability of secondary on multifunctionality and landscape management context in China and thus, limited secondary available related to China management practices. In addition, research does not consider the cultural and social differences and priorities of society which could highlight a different perspective and highlight different context.

 

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